Information

Marion de Chastelain


Marion Walsh was born in 1910. Her father worked for Standard Oil of New Jersey in Bucharest. She married Alfred Gardyne de Chastelain, a petroleum engineer and sales manager with Unirea de Petrol Company in Romania.

On the outbreak of the Second World War she returned to New York City in November 1940. Soon afterwards she obtained work with William Stephenson, the head of British Security Coordination (BSC) as a cipher clerk. Soon afterwards she was appointed as courier/translator for BSC agent, Elizabeth Park. "She was the type who reveled in espionage. She really loved it. And she came from a good Washington family so she had entree to all the embassies and places... She was tall... a dark blond... beautiful figure... not terribly good-looking, but she... certainly appealed to the males."

In November 1941, Japanese special envoy Suburu Kurusu, arrived in the United States. One of the BSC agents was able to record his conversations. On 27th November, 1941, William Stephenson sent a telegram to the British government: "Japanese negotiations off. Expect action within two weeks."

The attack on Pearl Harbor took place on 7th December, 1941. Marion de Chastelain was one of those transcribing these conversations. She later recalled: "If they were monitoring a lot, it is hard to see how they missed it. My opinion is that they did know, and unfortunately the poor admiral and general in Pearl Harbor took the blame."

Marion moved to London in November 1943: "I worked for Section 5 of MI6. That's counter-intelligence, and we were in the Charity Commissioner's office building... on Ryder Street, just off St. James Street." She worked with Hugh Trevor-Roper and Kim Philby: "Trevor-Roper and Philby were up in the attic above my head... Hugh Trevor-Roper is a little bit of a man with a big ego."

Marion de Chastelain used to see William Stephenson and his wife when they moved to Bermuda. "Mary didn't particularly care for Bermuda... She loved New York and she had lots of friends.... she found Bermuda fairly boring... It must have been difficult for her, because Bill was not a man to socialize. You know, go to big parties." She objected to an article in a magazine by David A. Stafford that suggested Stephenson was senile by this time: "He wasn't out of it at all. The impression of course could be due to his speech problem (after his stroke). Sometimes it was extremely good. And other times it wasn't... that would give the impression that he wasn't quite with it. You had to listen to what he said, not the way he said it."

Marion de Chastelain died in 2000.

I have appointed Mr W.S. Stephenson to take charge of my organisation in the USA and Mexico. As I have explained to you, he has a good contact with an official who sees the President daily. I believe this may prove of great value to the Foreign Office in the future outside and beyond the matters on which that official will give assistance to Stephenson. Stephenson leaves this week. Officially he will go as Principal Passport Control Officer for the USA. I feel that he should have contact with the Ambassador, and should like him to have a personal letter from Cadogan to the effect that it may at times be desirable for the Ambassador to have personal contact with Mr Stephenson.


1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Delorme, Marion

DELORME, MARION (c. 1613–1650), French courtesan, was the daughter of Jean de Lou, sieur de l’Orme, president of the treasurers of France in Champagne, and of Marie Chastelain. She was born at her father’s château near Champaubert. Initiated into the philosophy of pleasure by the epicurean and atheist Jacques Vallée, sieur Desbarreaux, she soon left him for Cinq Mars, at that time at the height of his popularity, and succeeded, it is said, in marrying him in secret. From this time Marion Delorme’s salon became one of the most brilliant centres of elegant Parisian society. After the execution of Cinq Mars she is said to have numbered among her lovers Charles de St Evremond (1610–1703) the wit and littérateur, Buckingham (Villiers), the great Condé, and even Cardinal Richelieu. Under the Fronde her salon became a meeting place for the disaffected, and Mazarin is said to have sent to arrest her when she suddenly died. Her last years have been adorned with considerable legend (cf. Merecourt, Confessions de Marie Delorme, Paris, 1856). It seems established that she died in 1650. But she was believed to have lived until 1706 or even 1741, after having had the most fantastic adventures, including marriage with an English lord, and an old age spent in poverty in Paris. Her name has been popularized by various authors, especially by Alfred de Vigny in his novel Cinq Mars, by Victor Hugo in the drama Marion Delorme, and by G. Bottesini in an opera of the same title.


Apache Incarceration

On April 16, 1886 a train arrived in St. Augustine. People from all around the area showed up to meet this train and catch a glimpse of those that it had carried from such a great distance away. On that morning the newest people to arrive in St. Augustine were a group of Apaches taken as prisoners in Arizona and transported for confinement in old Fort Marion, today the Castillo de San Marcos. When they walked off the train that early morning these people did not resemble the proud, fearless men and women who had evaded, fought, and struggled against the American Army. Onlookers undoubtedly had expected to see a spectacle of mighty warriors disembarking on that April day. What they saw instead, was a group of tired, weary, poorly clad people completely exhausted by their long years of fighting and hardship. Upon their arrival, a Florida Times-Union reporter described the scene as the Apache prisoners emerged from the train. “First came the men, each with shoulders and head wrapped in a blanket and all marching with expressionless faces and stately gait then came the young bucks with less dignity and fewer blankets, as well as fewer clothes of any kind then straggling along one by one, came the young women, girls, and children…” Their identities and reputations as Apache Indians, the last western tribe to ultimately surrender, had preceded them. But when they arrived in St. Augustine, they were forced to succumb to their new identity as prisoners of the US Army.

Imprisoned in St. Augustine

The prisoners that were brought to Fort Marion had fought with the great war chiefs Chihuahua, Naiche, and Geronimo. For years they had struggled against the efforts of the American Army, resisting plans to push them onto reservations. But after years of hardship and struggle, these people and their chiefs began to surrender one by one. The Unites States Government, fearing that if left in the west these Apaches would go back on the war path, decided to imprison them in an eastern, remote location. General Sherman and President Grover Cleveland decided on the old Castillo in St. Augustine, Florida. Over 500 Apache would eventually see the inside of these walls.

Living Conditions at Fort Marion

Placed in charge of the fort and its prisoners was Colonel Langdon. He was responsible for their physical well-being. Attending to this task, Langdon arranged for the prisoner’s medical care, food distribution, and clothing. The size and layout of the fort gave room to house only about 150 people, but the military placed all 502 Apaches within its walls as prisoners. This forced them to live in extremely crowded conditions in the rooms, but most lived in 130 cone-shaped Sibley tents on top of the fort. The few who were in the rooms slept on damp mortar floors, which did not help them to remain healthy. The majority, living in tents, were able to get plenty of fresh air.

Their daily diet was full Army rations consisting of one pound of beef daily for adults and half that for children fresh bread daily rice, turnips, hominy, sugar, coffee, and beans daily and once each week, they received small quantities of potatoes and onions. They would eat no fish or pork, and the rations they were given took a toll on their health. The Apache women cooked everything they ate except the bread, which was baked at St. Francis Barracks.

Life and Death at the Fort

The conditions at Fort Marion were crowded, and there was a constant concern about illness. Dr. DeWitt Webb, an Army physician, was tasked with overseeing the prison. He would visit the fort every morning, tend to the sick, assess the living conditions, and make recommendations to promote a healthy living environment. He did all he could do to cure them of any illness, and to prevent additional sicknesses, but he could not do enough. He reported the following deaths: 1 man, 7 women, and 16 children 4 from dysentery (1 man & 3 children) 6 children from acute bronchitis 3 women from marasmus (wasting disease) 2 women of old age 1 child of epilepsy 2 children from tetanus neanatorum 2 women and 4 children from tuberculosis. All were buried somewhere on North Beach (modern Vilano). There were also twelve children born at Fort Marion, including the daughter of Ih-Tedda and Geronimo. The Army called her Marion, but she later changed her name to Lenna.

To alleviate some of the concerns about crowded conditions, the prisoners were able to leave the Castillo, move freely around the grounds of the fort, and even go into town. But there was little for the prisoners to do besides tending to basic needs such as food preparation and caring for their children. They played card games such as monte, koonkan & alte practiced archery and rolled hoops. A game for men only, called masca, was played in the moat. The women earned money by weaving willow baskets, making moccasins, and constructing toy models of their unique crafts. All were for sale to the tourists visiting them in St. Augustine. Colonel Langdon noted that there was much idleness amongst the prisoners at the fort. Hoping to change this, he implemented a program aimed at assimilating the prisoners.

Education and Assimilation

Colonel Langdon recruited the assistance of some local women to teach some of the young men and teenagers: Miss Mather, Mrs. Horace Caruthers, and Miss Clark . They came to the fort every weekday and conducted classes inside the old coquina rooms. The classes focused on how to read, write, and speak the English language. They also offered instruction on arithmetic, science, and social studies. The younger children, those 12 and under, attended classes in the town at a local nunnery and were taught by the Sisters of St. Joseph, including Mother Alypius, Sister Jane Francis, and Sister Mary Albert . They gave instruction to the children in math, English, and the social aspects of American lifestyles. Inspired by the quick progress of the students, and desirous of decreasing the crowded conditions at Fort Marion, Colonel Langdon invited the Superintendent of the Carlisle School to visit St. Augustine, assess the students, and determine if they would make good pupils for his off-reservation boarding school.

Pratt visits Fort Marion

The Superintendent of the Carlisle Indian Industrial School was Captain Richard Henry Pratt. Pratt had been the jailor of the Plains Indians at Fort Marion 10 years prior, and during his tenure, he too had attempted to assimilate the prisoners. After leaving Florida, he opened the Carlisle School to educate Native American youth. Pratt visited St. Augustine in 1886 to assess the Apache students at the fort, and he selected 103 children to attend his institution. Those children boarded trains and were taken to Pennsylvania, where they were outfitted in uniforms, given Christian names, and learned how to integrate into mainstream, white society.

Florida to Oklahoma

The Apache prisoners were confined at the fort for just over one year. After a year, the group was moved to Alabama and then later to Fort Sill in Oklahoma. During their incarceration in Florida, one of the prisoners left a carving on the walls of the fort. Carefully etched into the coquina stone is a proud Apache Fire Dancer. That carving is still visible to the modern viewer, and today it remains as a physical reminder of 27 years of confinement.


Militistaro

De Chastelain komencis sian militistarkarieron kiel Militia malpubliko en la Regimentaj Pipoj kaj Drums of The Calgary Highlanders (Tamburoj de La Kalgariaj Altlandanoj) en kiuj li deĵoris de januaro ĝis septembro 1956. Li estis rekrutita en la Royal Military College of Canada (Reĝa Military College de Kanado) en septembro 1956 kaj diplomiĝis en 1960 kun BA-grado en historio kaj komisiono en Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI), du jarojn antaŭ ol li iĝis nature aperanta kanadano. Elfarante regimentan imposton en Kanado, Germanio, kaj Kipro, de Chastelain poste sekvis la Britan Armeon laborantarakademio en Camberley en 1966 kaj estis komandanta oficiro de la Dua-bataliona PPCLI de 1970 ĝis 1972. Dum la somero de 1973, kiel subkolonelo, li komandis Valcartier Army Cadet Summer Training Centre.

Kiel kolonelo, li komandis CFB Montrealon por dujara periodo finiĝanta kun la 1976-datita Somerolimpikoj en tiu grandurbo. Li ankaŭ estis Vicpolicestro de Kunlaborantaro de la Unuiĝintaj Nacioj-Forto en Kipro ( UNFICWP) kaj Komandanto de la kanada kontingento tie. Kiel generalbrigadisto, li sinsekve estis Komandanto de la Reĝa Armea Kolegio de Kanado, Komandanto de 4 kanadaj Mechanized Brigade Group en Lahr, Germanio, kaj direktoro General Land Doctrine kaj Operations en Nacia Defendo-Ĉefsidejo en Otavo.

Kiel generalmajoro, de Chastelain estis vickomandanto de la Kanada Armeo (tiam nomita Mobile Command) kaj Komandanto de la Mobile Komando-Dividado, kiu estis ekzercita kiel tia en 1985 sur Exercise RV '85. Kiel generalleŭtenanto, li estis asistanto Deputy Minister por Personnel, [1] kaj tiam Vice-Chief of the Defence Staff (Vic-ĉefo de la Armestabo). En 1989, li estis promociita al la rango de ĝenerala kaj elelektita Chief of the Defence Staff (Ĉefo de la Armestabo). En 1993, li transdonis al la rezervoj kaj estis nomumita Ambassador to the United States (Ambasadoro al Usono). En 1994, li estis revokita al Regular Force-imposto post la foriro de admiralo Anderson, kaj renomumita Ĉefo de la Armestabo, de kiu poŝto li retiriĝis en decembro 1995.


Civilian

Since November 1995, de Chastelain has been involved in the Northern Ireland peace process and from 1997 to 2011 he was Chairman of the Independent International Commission on Decommissioning, which was responsible for ensuring the decommissioning of arms by paramilitary groups in Northern Ireland. He has made an impact on the way that Britain has viewed the IRA since the decommissioning has begun. As part of the Good Friday Agreement an independent neutral adjudicator was selected to look over the disarmament of Republican and Loyalist paramilitary weapons in Northern Ireland.

He is a member of the Board of Directors of the Forum of Federations, the global network on federalism. [ 1 ] He is also a Senior Advisor on the University of Windsor's Jerusalem Old City Initiative.


Honours [ edit ]

In 1985, de Chastelain was appointed Commander of the Order of Military Merit and in 1991, Commander of the Order of St John in 1993, he received the Commendation Medal of Merit and Honour of Greece, and was appointed Officer of the Order of Canada in 1995, Γ] he was appointed Commander of the Legion of Merit (U.S.A.) in 1999, he was made a Companion of Honour and in 2014, he was promoted to Companion of the Order of Canada. Δ] Archie Cairns composed a jig for bagpipes in his honour in 1992. Ε]

He has an honorary Doctor of Military Science degree from the Royal Military College of Canada, an honorary Doctor of Laws (Conflict Resolution) degree from Royal Roads University in British Columbia, an honorary Doctor of Education degree from Nipissing University, an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Carleton University, an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Queen's University, Kingston, an honorary Doctor of Civil Law degree from Saint Mary's University, Halifax, an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Brock University, an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Concordia University, an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Mount Allison University and a Doctorate Honoris Causa from the University of Edinburgh. He is also an Honorary Fellow of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. De Chastelain was a recipient of the Vimy Award in 1992. Ζ]


Marion Delorme

Last month, sex worker activists discussed the case of Patricia Adler, a sociologist who had promoted ridiculous whore stereotypes in her classes on “deviancy” for twenty years she of course never bothered to consult actual sex workers or even fellow academics who had actually studied us, instead preferring to let students simply make things up under her (almost wholly ignorant) guidance.  But while we were annoyed and insulted by her actions, we were by no means surprised by them since time immemorial academics, artists, moralists, rulers and almost everyone else have considered prostitutes to be more like fictional characters than real people.  As I wrote in “Projection”, harlots “tend to be dehumanized into symbols for other people’s psychological needs and problems…people project their own concepts onto us and imagine us as the external representations of those concepts.”  The internet is the enemy of such projection because it allows us to speak for ourselves rather than allowing others to usurp that right, and because it allows real information about a person to be widely disseminated, thus disrupting the fictions.  In modern times, myths and other tales about whores are thus limited to those told about fictional characters (including those played by real people in “sex trafficking” roadshows), and those we tell about ourselves (and can successfully bury the truth about).  But it’s not always easy to separate fact from fiction when discussing the lives of courtesans who lived prior to the information age, and in some cases it’s practically impossible.

Case in point:  Marion Delorme, a French courtesan of the 17 th century.  A few facts about her are well-known and not generally disputed:  she was born on October 3 rd , 1613, the daughter of Jean de Lou, sieur de l’Orme and his wife Marie Chastelain.  She was rich, beautiful, well-educated and had little interest in conventional marriage, and her second known lover was Henri Coiffier de Ruzé, Marquis de Cinq-Mars, who was a favorite (and possibly lover) of King Louis XIII she stayed with him until his death in 1642.  In her twenties she became the hostess of a salon which after 1648 became a meeting place for the enemies of the powerful Cardinal Mazarin, and when he sent men to arrest her on July 2 nd , 1650 they reported back that she had died suddenly on June 30 th from an overdose of antimony she had taken to induce an abortion.  And that is the extent of what we know for (reasonably) certain everything else about her life is speculation, ranging from the highly likely to the highly dubious to the patently absurd.

Though she began working as a courtesan sometime after she began hosting the salon, it’s uncertain how quickly the former followed the latter she is said to have been secretly married to Cinq-Mars, but presumably it was in both their interests not to reveal that so as to avoid interfering with their other partners.  One of Marion’s was said to have been Cardinal Richelieu, who had first introduced Cinq-Mars to King Louis because he believed he could control the young nobleman and thereby influence His Majesty.  But Richelieu had completely misjudged Cinq-Mars instead, the young man told the King of the Cardinal’s treachery, pressed for him to be executed and tried to organize a noble rebellion against Richelieu.  Alas, he was caught by Richelieu’s spies and executed in 1642.  Marion was not implicated in the conspiracy, but it seems likely that her sympathies were aligned with those of her dead husband when the civil war called the Fronde began in 1648, those who opposed Richelieu’s successor Cardinal Mazarin gathered at her salon.  But some doubt her convenient death practically on the eve of her arrest a legend claims that the officials sent to detain her were either deceived or bribed into reporting her death, that the elaborate funeral which followed was a sham, and that Marion fled to England, married a lord and lived to 1706.

None of those speculations test the limits of credulity, but they are only the beginning other accounts claim she later had all sorts of adventures, eventually returned to Paris and died in abject poverty in 1741…which would have made her 127!  And in his Illuminati, the writer Gérard de Nerval recounts a legend that she used esoteric means to delay aging, was actually 150 at her death, and was already involved in the circles of power when King Henry IV died in 1610.  Furthermore, her involvement in court intrigue at a time later generations find fascinating ensured numerous fictional versions of her life  most notably, Victor Hugo wrote the drama Marion Delorme (1831) which was later adapted into opera by both Giovanni Bottesini (1862) and Amilcare Ponchielli (1885).  It has also been suggested that the villainous Milady de Winter of The Three Musketeers is based loosely on Marion, which if true would be rather ironic given that Milady was the agent of the fictional Richelieu and Marion the (eventual) enemy of the real one.

In general, the lives of famous people who lived more recently are clearer to us than those who lived very long ago, and the more remote the era the more likely true biographical details are to be mixed with legends and myths.  But when the subject is a whore, the truth tends not only to be harder to find (due to fabrications by the lady, her clients, her enemies and her clients’ enemies), but also harder to extract from the mythic landscape to which so many people would prefer to confine us.


The Castillo

The Castillo de San Marcos, nestled on the shores of St. Augustine’s Matanzas Bay, is a unique, bastion-style fortress that has served as a military post since 1672. Built from an indigenous and semi-rare stone composed of the shells of dead shellfish (called coquina), the Castillo stands today as the only 17th-century military structure in the nation it’s also the oldest US masonry fortress. Although it has been occupied by various cultures, specifically the Spanish, British, and the US, the Castillo has never been conquered in all of the years of its operation. Many believe its soft and porous stone walls have contributed to this long-lasting fortress. Unlike other stones, coquina has a compressible nature, absorbing the blasts of projectile cannons rather than deflecting as a result, ammunition gets stuck in the fort walls rather than explode into pieces. The other significant feature is its star-shaped design modeled after the ‘bastion system,’ a 15th-century Italian military design, the Castillo was built to withstand the changing technologies of New World warfare.


Pella Genealogy (in Marion County, IA)

NOTE: Additional records that apply to Pella are also found through the Marion County and Iowa pages.

Pella Birth Records

Pella Cemetery Records

Graceland Cemetery Billion Graves

Oak Wood Cemetery Billion Graves

T'lam Cemetery Billion Graves

Pella Census Records

State Census Marion Co 1847 US Gen Web Archives

United States Federal Census, 1790-1940 Family Search

Pella Church Records

Pella Death Records

Pella Histories and Genealogies

Pella Immigration Records

Pella Land Records

Pella Map Records

Birds eye view map of Pella, Marion County, Iowa, 1869 Library of Congress

Sanborn Fire Insurance Map from Pella, Marion County, Iowa, December 1883 Library of Congress

Sanborn Fire Insurance Map from Pella, Marion County, Iowa, January 1906 Library of Congress

Sanborn Fire Insurance Map from Pella, Marion County, Iowa, June 1888 Library of Congress

Sanborn Fire Insurance Map from Pella, Marion County, Iowa, November 1895 Library of Congress

Sanborn Fire Insurance Map from Pella, Marion County, Iowa, October 1911 Library of Congress

Pella Marriage Records

Pella Military Records

Pella Minority Records

Pella Newspapers and Obituaries

Pella Advertiser 1896-1897, 1901 Newspaper Archive at FindMyPast

Pella Blade 1869-1871, 1875-1876, 1881, 1886-1887, 1892-1893 Newspaper Archive at FindMyPast

Pella Blade 1886-1894, 1897-1899 Pella Public Library

Pella Chronicle 05/15/2008 to 05/11/2020 Genealogy Bank

Pella Chronicle 1901-1966, 1973-1977 Newspaper Archive at FindMyPast

Pella Chronicle 1909-1910, 1973-1987 Pella Public Library

Pella Chronicle Advertiser 1966-1973 Pella Public Library

Pella Chronicle-Advertiser 1966-1973 Newspaper Archive at FindMyPast

Pella Gazette 1855-1857, 1859-1860 Pella Public Library

Pella Herald 1891-1895, 1901 Newspaper Archive at FindMyPast

Pella Press 1893, 1927-1932 Newspaper Archive at FindMyPast

Pella Republican 1890-1891 Pella Public Library

Pella Twice A Week Press 1931 Pella Public Library

Pella Visitor 1880-1883 Newspaper Archive at FindMyPast

Pella Weekly Blade 1878 Pella Public Library

Pella Weekly Herald 1891-1894 Newspaper Archive at FindMyPast

Pella's Weekblad Pella Public Library

The Pella Advertiser 1898-1901 Pella Public Library

The Pella Banner 1904-1905 Pella Public Library

The Pella Blade 1865 Pella Public Library

The Pella Chronicle 1901-1966, 1987-1988 Pella Public Library

The Pella Gazette 1855 Pella Public Library

The Pella Herald 1892-1893, 1895 Pella Public Library

The Pella Press 1927-1938 Pella Public Library

The Pella Press And Shopper 1938-1939 Pella Public Library

The Pella Times 1895, 1901 Pella Public Library

The Pella Weekly Gazette 1857-1859 Pella Public Library

The Pella Weekly Herald 1891-1892 Pella Public Library

Weekly Pella Blade 1873, 1877-1883, 1901 Pella Public Library

Offline Newspapers for Pella

According to the US Newspaper Directory, the following newspapers were printed, so there may be paper or microfilm copies available. For more information on how to locate offline newspapers, see our article on Locating Offline Newspapers.

Booster Press. (Pella, Iowa) 1915-1926

Chronicle. (Pella, Iowa) 1988-Current

Copper Head. (Pella, Iowa) 1866-1868

Pella Advertiser. (Pella, Iowa) 1898-1901

Pella Banner. (Pella, Iowa) 1904-1905

Pella Blade. (Pella, Iowa) 1880s-1901

Pella Blade. ([Pella, Iowa) 1865-1869

Pella Chronicle-Advertiser. (Pella, Iowa) 1967-1973

Pella Chronicle. (Pella, Iowa) 1901-1967

Pella Chronicle. (Pella, Iowa) 1973-1988

Pella Gazette. (Pella, Iowa) 1855-1857

Pella Gazette. (Pella, Iowa) 1859-1860

Pella Herald. (Pella, Iowa) 1894-1895

Pella Press and Shopper. (Pella, Iowa) 1938-1939

Pella Press. (Pella, Iowa) 1927-1938

Pella Republican. (Pella, Iowa) 1889-1891

Pella Semi-Weekly Blade. (Pella, Iowa) 1869-1870s

Pella Times. (Pella, Iowa) 1895-1896

Pella Weekly Gazette. (Pella, Marion County, Iowa) 1857-1859

Pella Weekly Herald. (Pella, Iowa) 1891-1894

Pella's Niewsblad. (Pella, Marion County, Iowa) 1899-1901

Pella's Weekblad. (Pella, Iowa) 1860s-1942

Saturday Advertiser. (Pella, Iowa) 1896-1898

Weekly Pella Blade. (Pella, Iowa) 1870s-1880s

Pella Probate Records

Pella School Records

Central College Ray 1988-2000 The Central College Library

Central College Vander Ray 1989-1989 The Central College Library

Central Ray 1876-2007 The Central College Library

Ray 1968-2000 The Central College Library

The Collegium Forense 1892-1892 The Central College Library

The Pelican Yearbook 1907-2008 The Central College Library

The Ray 1900-1969 The Central College Library

The Scentral Bray 1954-1956 The Central College Library

The Scentral Fray 1950-1950 The Central College Library

The Simpsonian 1891-1891 The Central College Library

Pella Tax Records

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Legend

Her last years have been adorned with considerable legend (cf. Merecourt, Confessions de Marie Delorme, Paris, 1856). It seems established that she died in 1650. But she was believed to have lived until 1706 or even 1741, after having had the most fantastic adventures, including marriage with an English lord, and an old age spent in poverty in Paris. Her name has been popularized by various authors, especially by Alfred de Vigny in his novel Cinq Mars, by Victor Hugo in the drama Marion Delorme, and by Amilcare Ponchielli and Giovanni Bottesini in two operas of the same title.


Watch the video: Le Chastelain de Couci: Li nouveax temps et maiz et violete (December 2021).