Puzzling Prehistoric Posts: The Enigmatic Spirit Poles of Eurasia

Totem poles are often seen as quintessential features of the Northwest Coast of America. Over in Eurasia, there is a similar idea – spirit poles.

Common Totem Pole Types

Three common types of totem poles are: Memorial Poles, Welcome/Potlatch Figures, and House Posts. A Memorial Pole is one that is raised after the death of a chief or high-ranking person. The motives and symbols carved on it memorialize significant events in the life of the person.

Totem Pole in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. ( Public Domain )

Welcome/Potlatch Figures are raised and put in sight of guests arriving by water for a feast or gift-giving meeting. These anthropomorphic poles are usually depicted in welcoming postures. Related to Welcome/Potlatch Figures are Speakers Posts, which describe ancestral figures with open mouths. Speakers stand behind these poles and articulate as part of a greeting ceremony. Both these forms can be accompanied by a larger pole known as a Commemorative Figure, decorated with symbolic designs and family crests, stood outside the meeting house.

  • Witchcraft, Worship or Public Shaming? The Puzzling Purpose of Totem Poles in North America
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A House Post is humanoid and architectural. Depending on the type of house, House Posts come in singles or doubles and support the beams of the roof. In addition to their appearance as supernatural beings, House Posts can also feature carvings signifying lineages and histories. The Hamatsa secret society relate a sacred legend in their ceremonies about an encounter with House Posts and the origin of the totem pole. When two brothers got lost on a hunting trip, they found a strange house with red smoke oozing from its roof. When they entered nobody was there but one of the house posts was a living woman. She warned them about the owner of the house, a dreadful man-eating giant with man-eating birds for his companions. When the giant returned, the brothers defeated him and took bird and bear masks and the first pole from the house.

‘Hamatsa Collage.’ (Alistair Coombs)

Northwest Coast poles are world renowned for their towering sizes and high degree of artistic workmanship. They are also part of a living tradition so that their meanings can be related. Whether or not the term totem is misapplied to them, they are essentially columns which represent ancestral or supernatural beings with extra ornamentations of cultural significance. Determining the age of pole traditions is difficult since they are often made of wood, which is not a material amenable to preservation; if left exposed to the elements they perish over the course of decades and centuries. Totem poles, however, reach back into prehistory and are not specific to America.

The Shigir Idol and Other Spirit Poles

In 1894, a large wooden statue was discovered at a depth of four meters (13.12 ft.) in a peat bog on the eastern slope of the Ural Mountains about 100 km (62.14 miles) from Ekaterinburg, Russia. Today, the Urals mark the boundary between western Russia and Siberia. The anthropomorphic sculpture became known as the ‘Shigir Idol’ named after the peat bog situated in an open-air gold mine, a site from which other prehistoric artefacts have been found, including arrowheads depicting waterfowl, a wooden bear head, amulets made of bear fangs, and an antler staff-head depicting a mythic beast combining wolf, boar and bear. The Shigir Idol was presented as a gift by the landowner to the Urals Society of Natural History, today the Sverdlovsk Regional Museum, Ekaterinburg.

Shigir Idol. (Alistair Coombs)

The Shigir Idol was made from the trunk of a larch tree split in half and probably stood at a height of about 5 meters (16.40 ft.), lower fragments of it have become lost. The statue is impressively old. In the 1990s, it was radiocarbon dated to an age of 9,500 years, which, at that time, was believed incorrect due to preconceptions about the capabilities of hunter-gatherers. In 2018, a Russo-German team re-dated the sculpture to 11,600 years, all the way back to the Early Holocene.

Naturally, the meaning of its symbolic elements has attracted different ideas; including encoded creation myths of the indigenous Ural peoples, or a navigational tool. Indigenous memory-systems specialist, Lynne Kelly, examines the use of totem poles as devices for storing knowledge without apparent writing systems, which becomes interesting in this respect.

Its series of vertical faces may represent divinities or different chapters concerning one. Notable is a recurring sevenfold symbolism, which includes seven identifiably human-like faces. The sculpture itself might have been a forest spirit, marker of a cosmic borderland, or even a “keep out” sign. The figure does not lack what we might term outré character.

Gobekli Tepe ‘totem pole.’ (Alistair Coombs)

Prehistoric Links Between Siberia and Anatolia

Other sculptures like the Shigir Idol have not been found, but it was most likely not a cultural anomaly. Its Late Glacial age led the research team to compare it with the earliest monumental anthropomorphic pillars of Gӧbekli Tepe , Southeast Anatolia, which are surprisingly contemporaneous in established date (9,600 BC). It is tempting to ask if the creation of these monuments was influenced by changing environmental conditions to which people at the close of the Ice Age were exposed. A “totem pole” with more similarity to the schemes of the Northwest American genre, but made of stone rather than wood, was also found in a later layer of Gӧbekli Tepe. It depicts three main motifs - two of which have been destroyed. On account of its ears and eyes, Klaus Schmidt suggested the upper had depicted the head of a bear.

Spirit poles at Lake Baikal. The various colors of fabric summon different classes of spirit. (Alistair Coombs)

Other research traces a continuity of shamanic ideas and images between prehistoric Siberia and Anatolia. Confronting the lack of early written sources among sub-Arctic shaman groups, the archaeologists Harald Haarman and Joan Marler examine material culture from the Ice Age settlement of Mal’ta west of Lake Baikal. In their analysis, this portable art, which includes figurines of waterfowl and bears, diadems, bracelets, and symbolically marked plaques, present a “refrigerator” of mythic prototypes around which belief systems of northern shamans crystallizes. Dating from 23,000 BC onwards, the Mal’ta iconography is, for them, a repertory of basic motifs which, despite stylistic variations and changes in material, define an enormous longevity of ideas across an interconnected zone of prehistoric culture which embraced Siberia and Anatolia.

  • Göbekli Tepe Shamans and their Cosmic Symbols – Part I
  • Oldest Wooden Statue in the World: The 11,000-Year-Old Shigir Idol
  • Eerie Ancient Wax Sculptures for Hexing Enemies, Destroying Demons, and Remembering the Dead

Ancestor poles at the Novosibirsk Museum. (Alistair Coombs)

While there is no evidence of monumental forms on the scale of the Shigir statue, they note the spirit poles of later Altaic communities which mark sacred spaces and entrances to communities. These are the same poles which eventually moved westward to both sides of the Bering Strait. Though cultural elements change with unequal speed, the most stable are those which are considered sacred, despite cultural appropriations. The indigenous mythology of North America has long been regarded as “moderately Siberian” and this would include its pole traditions which, anthropologically, continue from prehistoric origins.

Totem poles at Kamchatka. (Alistair Coombs)

Early Slavs

The early Slavs were a diverse group of tribal societies who lived during the Migration Period and the Early Middle Ages (approximately the 5th to the 10th centuries) in Central and Eastern Europe and established the foundations for the Slavic nations through the Slavic states of the High Middle Ages. [1] The first written use of the name "Slavs" dates to the 6th century, when the Slavic tribes inhabited a large portion of Central and Eastern Europe. By then, the nomadic Iranian ethnic groups living on the Eurasian Steppe (the Scythians, Sarmatians, Alans etc.) had been absorbed by the region's Slavic population. [2] [3] [4] [5] Over the next two centuries, the Slavs expanded southwest toward the Balkans and the Alps and northeast towards the Volga River. [6] The Slavs' original habitation is still a matter of controversy, but scholars believe that it was somewhere in Eastern Europe. [7]

Beginning in the 7th century, the Slavs gradually converted to Christianity (both Byzantine Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism). Arguably the first Christian Slavs were the Croats and Serbs who accepted baptism, [ citation needed ] having become allies of Emperor Heraclius (r. 610-641), although this first conversion was short-lived. By the 12th century, they were the core population of a number of medieval Christian states: East Slavs in the Kievan Rus', South Slavs in the Bulgarian Empire, the Principality of Serbia, Kingdom of Croatia and the Banate of Bosnia, and West Slavs in the Principality of Nitra, Great Moravia, Duchy of Bohemia, and the Kingdom of Poland. The oldest known Slavic principality in hystory was Carantania, established in the 7th century by the Eastern Alpine Slavs, the ancestors of present-day Slovenes. Slavic settlement of the Eastern Alps comprised modern-day Slovenia, Eastern Friul and large parts of modern-day Austria.

How Neanderthal DNA from cave dirt is revealing details about how early humans lived

For centuries, archaeologists have searched caves for teeth and bones entombed in sun-starved dirt in the hope of piecing together how our ancestors lived and what they looked like.

Now, new techniques to capture DNA preserved in cave sediment are allowing researchers to detect the presence of Neanderthals and other extinct humans. These ancestors roamed the Earth before and, in some cases, alongside Homo sapiens. The latest techniques allow scientists to learn about our early relatives without ever having to find their bones — just the dirt from the caves where they hung out.

Humans and animals constantly shed genetic material when they pee, poop and bleed — and from shedding hair and dead skin cells. This genetic material leaches into the soil, where it can remain for tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of years if the conditions are right — such as in dark, cold caves.

Researchers have, for the first time, retrieved detailed Neanderthal genetic material from DNA preserved in dirt in three different caves in Europe and Siberia, according to a study published in the journal Science in April.

“These are ancient caves where Neanderthals lived. You don’t know if people are pooping where they lived and worked. I’d like to think not. But they are making tools, you can imagine they cut themselves. If they had children, the children maybe pooped — they definitely didn’t have Pampers,” said lead author Benjamin Vernot, a population geneticist at Germany’s Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

Vernot helped develop the new technique to capture and analyze the DNA from cave sediments.

Unraveling mysteries

The first human DNA gleaned from cave dirt came from Denisova Cave in Siberia in 2017. Last year, scientists were able to extract the DNA of Denisovans — a little-known human population for which we only have five definitive bone fragments — from dirt in a cave on the Tibetan plateau. That cave is where the first Denisovan fossil remains outside the eponymous Siberian cave had been found. The discovery provided more definitive evidence for their presence in Asia.

Those findings, however, were of mitochondrial DNA, which is more abundant but less informative than nuclear DNA.

Vernot and his team are the first to glean human nuclear DNA from cave dirt.

“Mitochondrial DNA is only inherited from the mother, it’s only one tiny thread of your ancestry and you lose a lot of complexity. If you look at the nuclear genomes of humans, Neanderthals or Denisovans, you can calculate how they were related and how many there were at a given time,” Vernot said.

Extracting and decoding this DNA isn’t easy, but it’s beginning to reshape our understanding of prehistory and may allow scientists to untangle some of human evolution’s biggest mysteries: how our ancestors spread around the world and how they interacted with other ancient humans — including the enigmatic Denisovans.

“I think the Science paper is a remarkable technical achievement and opens up many possibilities for future work in Eurasia on caves with no Neanderthal (or Denisovan) fossils,” said Chris Stringer, research leader in human origins and professor at the Natural History Museum in London. He wasn’t involved in this latest study.

“Many temperate areas that currently have little or no archaic fossil human record may now be able to contribute to building a population history of Neanderthals, Denisovans and – who knows? – yet other human lineages,” Stringer said via email.

Until recently, the only way to study the genes of ancient humans was to recover DNA from scarce fossil bones and teeth. To date, DNA has only been extracted from 18 Neanderthal bones, four Denisovans and the child of a Neanderthal and Denisovan.

This breakthrough means that many, many more DNA sequences can potentially be obtained, even without skeletal remains, to build up a more complete picture of ancient humans.

Where does the DNA come from?

Vernot and his colleagues took around 75 samples from sediment layers in three caves where ancient humans long have been known to have lived: the Denisova and Chagyrskaya caves in southern Siberia and the Galería de las Estatuas in the Atapuerca Mountains in northern Spain. About three-quarters of the samples the research team took had ancient human DNA.

“In the caves we sampled, archaeologists had already dug deep and exposed the different layers so we were able to access 40,000 years of history. We took tiny plastic tubes and jammed them into the cave sediments and twisted them a bit.”

Detecting the Neanderthal DNA fragments in the cave sediment wasn’t easy, Vernot said. The caves were inhabited by other animals that have similar stretches of DNA to humans. And these caves also could have been contaminated by DNA from archaeologists who have worked in the cave.

The team compared the known genomes of Neanderthal fossils with those of 15 other mammals and designed chemical methods to target the uniquely Neanderthal part of the genome that would be most informative.

“Humans weren’t the only things in that cave. We are related to all living things In Earth, and there are parts of our genome that are similar to bears or pigs. You really have to fish for the human DNA. Human DNA fragments are one in a million.”

Ultimately, the scientists were able to tell when the Neanderthals lived in the cave, the genetic identity of the cave dwellers, and, in some cases, their sex. The oldest DNA the researchers managed to find was Denisovan and dated back 200,000 years.

The information the team gleaned from the Spanish cave was particularly intriguing, Vernot said. While it had been a hangout for ancient humans for more than 40,000 years, with many stone tools found in the sediment, the only Neanderthal fossil found there was a toe bone that was too small to sample for DNA.

However, the DNA Vernot found and sequenced showed that two separate lineages of Neanderthals had lived in the cave, with the later group evolving much bigger brains.

Using similar techniques, scientists announced last month that they had sequenced the genome of a prehistoric bear that lived more than 10,000 years ago using DNA fragments found in dirt in a cave in Mexico. The technique has wide applications to study the evolution of animals, plants and microorganisms, the researchers said.

Rolling the dice

In particular, Vernot wants to apply these techniques to cave dirt at sites that might have been occupied by both Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis around 40,000 years ago. This is when early modern humans first arrived in Europe and encountered Neanderthals, who had lived in the region for tens of thousands of years. It could shed light on how the two groups interacted.

“We know that early humans and Neanderthals interbred. But we don’t really know about that interaction. Did they live together or run into each other and have a one night stand?” Vernot said.

“Early humans brought with them a new technology for making stone tools — more nuanced, with material from new places. We have sites with the old tools that we associate with Neanderthals and new tools we know (early modern) humans made but we don’t have bones associated with those tools. It’s entirely possible we met them and taught them how to do this.”

It could also help build up a more complete picture of ancient humans in southeast Asia — an exciting locale for paleoanthropology. It’s where some of the world’s oldest cave art has been found and the remains of puzzling archaic humans such as the Hobbits of Flores in Indonesia have been discovered. DNA degrades more easily in warmer climates, but these new techniques mean more DNA sequences potentially can be found.

“It’s not like DNA preserves better in cave dirt but it allows you to roll the dice more times — there’s a lot more dirt than bones. There’s a lot more needles in your haystack.”

Where we humans come from

Note from the Author: The enigmatic Kolbrin contains alongside its Celtic records six ancient Egyptian books, the remnants of scrolls written or copied by scribes from much earlier writings whose provenance has not yet been proven. Most people dismiss the books as forgeries. I am convinced that their core material is genuine.

What is a human being? ‘It’s animal and it’s noble,’ said the actor-writer Stephen Fry on air some years ago 1 . Where that ‘noble animal’ comes from is perhaps the biggest question of all. Neanderthals, Denisovans, Homo naledi 2 , Homo luzonensis 3 – the surprises keep coming and the mystery deepens. Over recent decades, discoveries have sent mainstream thinking into flux – particularly the latest finding that two million years ago, three different human-like species were living side-by-side in South Africa: Australopithecus (made famous by the ‘Lucy’ fossil from Ethiopia), Paranthropus and Homo sapiens 4 .

Several major theories of human origin bubble away in our belief systems: Creationism, Evolution and, most recently in fringe circles, human engineering by advanced beings or aliens 5 . Where do the mysterious books of the Kolbrin stand in this debate? Its Egyptian Books of Creation and Gleanings touch on two of the theories and substantiate a third, but they go further – they tell a story not found in any other source—the over-arching tragedy of why human beings are not what we were intended to be.

Creation by an Intelligent Designer

Christians who read the Book of Genesis literally believe the world was created by God in six days, and that he rested on the seventh. 6 Some Christians have put forward the idea of an ‘Intelligent Designer’ as an alternative to the science of evolution. To many sceptical modern minds, creation by God seems a dated and difficult notion.

The Creation of Adam (detail), Michelangelo (1475-1564), Sistine Chapel, Rome (PD0)

What do the Kolbrin’s Egyptian books say vis à vis Creationism? Its opening chapter begins, ‘There are no true beginnings on Earth, for here all is effect, the ultimate cause being elsewhere… Before the beginning there was only one consciousness, that of the Eternal One…. It was the One Sole Spirit, the Self Generator which cannot diminish, the Unknown, Unknowable One brooding solitary in profound pregnant silence… Into the solitude of timelessness came Divine Loneliness and from this arose the desire to create… He took thought and brought into being within Himself the Universal Womb of Creation containing the everlasting essence… From the Great Womb had sprung the Spirit of Life and it was rampant in the Heavens. It gazed upon Earth and… and was filled with desire, and came out of the heavenly spaces to possess her. It came not peacefully as a lover, but tempestuously as a ravager. Its breath howled along her corridors and raged among her mountain tops…’ From these turbulent metaphorical beginnings the Great Womb moves on to create flora and fauna, ‘fishes and creatures which move about and twist themselves and wriggle in the waters, the serpents and the beasts of terrible aspect which were of yore, and reptiles which creep and crawl. There were tall walking things and dragons in hideous form clothed with terror, whose great bones may still be seen.’

Then, as Man slept, ‘God opened the Great Eye within him and man saw a vision of unsurpassed glory… Unbounded wisdom filled his heart and he beheld beauty in perfection. The ultimates of Truth and Justice were unveiled… The… ages of time unrolled … and he saw written thereon all that was to become and occur. The great vaults of Heaven were opened up unto him… He… was then even as God Himself, and he knew the secret of the Seven Spheres within Three Spheres. Then… the great vision departed and he awoke… no more than the shadow of a dream remained… Henceforth, man was destined to wander discontented, seeking something which told him that the radiance seen on the horizon but dimly reflected the hidden glory beyond it. Man awoke, the revelation… gone, only the grim reality of Earth’s untamed vastness surrounded him. But… He was now a new man… He looked above and saw glory in the Heavens. He saw beauty about him and he knew… things not of the Earth. The vision of eternal values arose before his inner eye. His Spirit was responding to its environment, man was now man, truly man.’ 7

From these profoundly mystic passages it emerges that the Kolbrin’s God is a far more abstract, conceptual divinity than the almighty God of the Book of Genesis.


All species are descended from common ancestors 8 according to the great naturalist, geologist and biologist Charles Darwin 9 . In recent years mainstream science has tended to see evolution as a branching process rather than clinging to his ‘Missing link’ theory. Those common ancestors are getting older all the time. Currently a partial skull found in the southern Peloponnese in Greece has been given an age of 210,000 years 10 , while recent remains from Morocco have been dated to 315,000 years ago 11 . But even looking at these great time periods, the nagging problem about evolutionary thinking is that there simply has not been enough time for the extraordinary changes that distinguish modern Homo sapiens from primitive humanoid species to have taken place, to have evolved. The anthropologist Agustin Fuentes describes those changes as no less than a transformation: 12

‘The human baseline of creative cooperation, the ability to think, communicate, and collaborate with increasing prowess, transformed us into beings who invented the technologies that support domestication, economies, large-scale societies, warfare, and broad-scale peace. This collaborative and imaginative capacity for creativity also drove the development of religious beliefs and ethical systems, and even the production of artwork…’

Illustration from The evolution of man: a popular exposition of the principal points
of human ontogeny and phylogeny, Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) (PD0)

What does the Kolbrin say about mankind and evolution? The Book of Creation states that ‘Man, when young, lived only to eat and drink and to fornicate, for, being conscious only of the Earth, he knew only earthly things and earthly ways’. This suggests a primitive hominid slowly evolving.

Heavenman and Selok

Then, almost out of nowhere, comes a jaw-dropping paragraph:

Consider that which was told by the servants of Eban 13 , of Heavenman who once wandered the Earth. He had no earthly substance and could not grasp its fruits, for he had no hands. He could not drink its waters, for he had no mouth, nor could he feel the cool winds upon his skin. They tell how the ape tribe Selok, led by Heavenman, perished by flames before the Valley of Lod 14 , only one she-ape reaching the cave heights above. When Heavenman was reborn of the she-ape in the cavern of Woe 15 , could he taste the fruits of the Earth and drink of her waters, and feel the coolness of her winds? Did he not find life good? It is not all a tale of the courtyard!’ 16

The scribe’s comment, ‘It is not all a tale of the courtyard!’ indicates that this was not just scurrilous chitchat. And strangely enough, in 2014, two ancient skulls without mouths were reportedly discovered in a cave on Mount Bolshoi Tjach in Russia the find was subsequently investigated by the scientist Vladimir Melikov and aired by the media two years later. 17 Unfortunately, an entirely separate find in nearby woods of an old Nazi briefcase and a 1941 area map was immediately linked to the skulls and led to sensational paranormal speculations, after which the whole affair petered out. If these two skulls in Russia are indeed remnants of ‘Heavenman’, and there was another Heavenman in the Valley of Lod in Israel, then there would have been more than one Heavenman wandering the Earth in the distant past.

See images of mouthless skulls reportedly discovered in a cave on Mount Bolshoi Tjach, Russia here.

A later Kolbrin snippet echoes this event: ‘The first land on Earth wherein men dwelt was… a land out beyond the salt waters. To this land came the Immortal Spirit in the form of a Radiant One from Heaven, who had left his more enlightened place to dwell among beasts in the lower kingdom of sorrow. In some mysterious way he became incarnated as man, how we know not, but he founded the race of man.’ 18

The Kolbrin then swings back into more familiar mode, describing how Man, ’the child of calamity… the inheritor of a creative struggle’ was born ‘of upheaval and strife… All was in discord, snow fell in the hot wastelands, ice covered the fertile plains, the forests became seas…’ Later, ‘when he was grown sufficiently to be lifted so he walked in the uprightness of God’, Earth ‘raised him above all other creatures…’ The Kolbrin adds that although Man was ‘the son of Earth, the grandchild of God,’ he was ‘not her first-born’, but does not elaborate on this intriguing point.

The Children of God

After recording two global cataclysms which virtually destroy the Earth and its creatures, the Book of Creation describes a remarkable process:

Now, the Children of God were moulded by the Hand of God which is called Awen and it manifested according to their desires. For all things which have life are moulded by Awen. The fox, shivering in the coldlands, longs for warmth and so its cubs have warmer coats. The owl, clumsy in the dark, longs to see its prey more clearly, and in generations of longing the desire is granted. Awen makes everything what it is, for all things change under its law. Men, too, are moulded by their desires, but unlike the beasts and birds their yearnings are circumscribed by the laws of fate and destiny and the law of sowing and reaping’. 19

‘Awen’ is obviusly evolution by another name 20 , a process by which ‘in generations of longing the desire is granted’. But mankind is rather different, says the Kolbrin: ‘their yearnings are circumscribed by the laws of fate and destiny.’ This raises the question: why are human beings different? Why did men and women not evolve like other creatures? More on this later.

Who were the ‘Children of God’? My article ‘The Kolbrin on the Sons of God and Daughters of Men’, 17 th September 2018, sets out to tell the complex history of these obscure people points touched on in that article are explored more fully here.

The Kolbrin tells us that the Sons and Daughters of God were special, very special indeed. Their story begins: ‘The forebears of all the nations of man were once one people, and they were the elect of God who delivered all the Earth over to them, all the people, the beasts of the field, the creatures of the wasteland and the things that grow. They dwelt through long ages in lands of peace and plenty. There were some who struggled harder, were more disciplined because their forefathers had crossed the great dark void, their desires were turned Godward and they were called “The Children of God”’ 21

One phrase stands out: ‘Their forefathers had crossed the great dark void’. This ‘dark void’ can only be a cosmic void – a vast space between galaxy filaments in the universe 22 . But this was not just any void: it was ‘the great’ dark void. In 2013 astronomers identified the biggest of all voids discovered in modern times – the KBS Void which includes the Milky Way. 23 Our Solar System lies within the KBS void. Could the Kolbrin be referring to this vast yawning emptiness?

The Milky way and the Rho Ophiuchi star system photographed from 2,500 metres up a volcano in Tenerife.

‘Milky way nebula’ by AstroAnthony (CCBY4.0)

Later in the Book of Creation, a hominid says to a Child of God: ‘Back in the dreamingtime, when the Great Gods strove among themselves for dominion of the sky-spaces 24 … this land [Earth] was given to my people as their dominion, while yours was in another unearthly place far distant. 25 ’ So the Children of God’s ancestors came from somewhere ‘unearthly’ and ‘far distant’, beyond Earth. The Book of Gleanings speaks of the Children of God at a later time when they became ‘fully Earth-sustained…’ 26 , indicating that previously they were partially sustained by a place that was not our Earth.

Time passed, and the Children of God were grown strong and upright…’ 27 It sounds as though destiny overtook evolution to produce some upright creatures who were capable of rather more than eating, drinking and fornicating, and those creatures were called the Children of God. The term ‘upright’ is significant here the Kolbrin says that when man ‘was grown sufficiently to be lifted so he walked in the uprightness of God, [Earth] took him and raised him above all other creatures’ that ‘the Children of God were grown strong and upright under the tempering hammer of God’ and that ‘Then came man who walked like a little child, but God took him in hand and taught him to walk in the uprightness of God’. All these snippets refer to a species which walked on all fours like a small child, but which was raised to walk upright on two legs. 28

The missing link – Sumer

Two hundred years ago, the land of Sumer was not even known to exist. Archaeologists went to Mesopotamia hunting for traces of the Assyrian and Babylonian cultures and had no idea there was anything older then during the 1840s they began to unearth great ancient cities: Babylon and Persepolis (Claudius James Rich) Nineveh (Rich, Paul Émile Botta, Victor Place) Nimrud (Austen Henry Layard) Uruk and Larsa (William Kennet Loftus) Kish (Jules Oppert) Ur and Eridu (J. E. Taylor) Borsippa (Henry Creswicke Rawlinson), among others.

Excavating the Royal Cemetery of Ur, 1900. H.R.Hall, (1873-1930), ed. Sir Leonard Woolley (1880-1960) (PD0)

A mystery surrounds the Sumerian civilisation. As the writer Laurence Gardner 29 points out, ‘To this day, everyone concerned is baffled by the sudden, extraordinary emergence of the Sumerians, seemingly from nowhere… There is no doubt that, upon their advent in southern Mesopotamia, they were already highly advanced, to a level far beyond that recorded or sustained in any place from where logically they could have emanated. Nowhere on Earth was there a culture like that of the Sumerians, who appeared soon after 4000 BC… a civilisation which progressed the legacy of humankind thousands of years ahead of natural evolution.’ 30 It was the Sumerians who invented the wheel, the chariot, the sailing boat, who traded and travelled, who designed kilns for baking bricks and pottery, worked as metallurgists and made implements such as the plough. They developed the first language to write down everything from laws to the story of the first super-hero, Gilgamesh. They used cylinder seals for signing contracts, and had a government that combined a ruler, local councils and elected officials. They brewed beer and invented the game of checkers. We still use their system of maths based on 60: the 60-second minute, 60-minute hour and 360-degree circle.

Level 7, Temple of Eridu as it might have looked in the Ubaid period

Great Ziggurat of Ur, side view
‘Zig close’ by Kaufingdude (CCBYSA3.0)

Great Ziggurat of Ur
‘Zig from side’ by Kaufingdude (CCBYSA3.0)

The ancient script found on the half-million or so clay tablets dug up in Mesopotamia is recognised to be the oldest sophisticated form of writing in existence. Nevertheless, says Gardner, ‘there is no region on Earth which identifies any scribal concept that might have been its forerunner. It appeared in a complete and composite form, as if from another world, in the style known as cuneiform (wedge-shaped).’ 31 It was used for over 3,000 years to write 15 different languages including Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Elamite, Hittite, Urartian and Old Persian. In 1872 George Smith’s breakthrough translation of the Flood myth The Epic of Gilgamesh from cuneiform clay tablets started to shift the spotlight of ancient history away from the Bible which had dominated belief systems for centuries. Nevertheless, a heavy religious bias continued in the world of Sumerian scholarship. 32

‘Babylonian cuneiform tablet with a map from Nippur 1550-1450 BCE’ by Mary Harrsch (CCBY2.0)

There has also been a tendency to overlook the obvious. Scrutinising the statues, carvings and cylinder seals of ancient Mesopotamia, it is plain to see that the cultural landscape was peopled with many extremely weird creatures. For every bearded Sumerian man and dumpy Sumerian woman portrayed, there are fishmen, bullmen, nursing mothers with reptilian heads, gods with lamp-like eyes, men sitting in winged contraptions up in the sky, the mušḫuššu/sirrush (a small curly-snouted dragon), griffins, tall hawk-headed winged creatures with handbags and cones, shaggy-legged fauns, long-necked sauropods, scorpion-legged beings – the list goes on. Scholars politely overlook this hybrid menagerie teeming before their eyes when it is clear that here was a civilisation like nowhere else.

Figurines of women with reptilian heads
‘Two female figurines with bitumen headdresses ceramic Ur Iraq Ubaid 4500-4000 BCE’ by Mary Harrsch (CCBY2.0)

Modern clay impression of a cylinder seal with lion-headed sauropod hybrids and eagles, Mesopotamia, Uruk Period (4100–3000 BC). Jastrow (2006),
‘Uruk3000BCE’ by PHGCOM (CCBYSA4.0)

Plate from Nineveh and Persepolis: a historical sketch of ancient Assyria and Persia, with an account of the recent researches in those countries,
W,S,W, Vaux (London, A.Hall, Virtue & Co., 1850) (PD0)

Statue of the god Marduk with pet mušḫuššu, depicted on a cylinder seal of the Babylonian king Marduk-zakir-shumi, 9th century BC (PD0)

The dragon-like mušḫuššu/sirrush, with the hind legs of an eagle, lion-like forelimbs, a long neck and tail, a horned head, snake-like tongue, and a crest. From the wall of the reconstructed Ishtar Gate, Babylon, 6th century BC
Mushkhusshu, il drago-serpente’ by Raffaele pagani (CCBYSA4.0)

What does the Kolbrin say about Sumer? The Kolbrin is a patchwork remnant of a much larger collection of books most of which are long lost, including much historical material 33 . But the Books of Creation and Gleanings include historically-linked events set in a place called ‘Shinara’ (Shinar is the Hebrew name for Sumer) and are dotted with Sumerian names.

The Book of Creation says that some of the Children of God ‘came out of the barren places and learned the ways of builders… raising cities along the rivers. Among them was Enkilgal who built Keridor, which stands between the two great rivers, and Netar and Baletsheramam who taught men the ways of writing, setting the letters upon a pillar in Herak 34 ‘Keridor’ is probably a skewed version of Eridu, ‘Enkilgal’ a skewed version of Enki, and ‘Herak’ a skewed version of Uruk. The book of Gleanings says that after the Worldwide Flood, Hanok/Noah’s ‘brothers divided the water-washed land between them. One… ruled the western waters. One ruled the eastern waters… The other raised up Eraka in the midst of them, and he was the greatest. The city of Eraka stood for a thousand years…’ 35 ‘Eraka’ is surely the city of Erek/Uruk, thought to have been the world’s largest city in its time. Elsewhere, ‘Nintursu’, described as ‘last of the line of Sisuda’, ‘Maiden of the Temple’ and mother of Gilgamesh, is a skewed version of Ninsun, a Sumerian goddess. ‘Nimrod of the Twin Bows’ can be identified with the Nimrod of Genesis 36 , a mighty hunter who ruled in Shinar. ‘Sisuda’ of ‘Sharapek, now called Sarapesh’ is Ziusudra of Shuruppak, the last king to rule from Uruch/Erech before the Worldwide Flood.

But the Kolbrin contains rather more than skewed Sumerian names: within its pages is a story linked to some of Sumer’s most enigmatic writings.

Reading myth as history

Three authors stand out from others for their revolutionary thinking on Sumer: Zecharia Sitchin, the husband and wife team Christian and Joy O’Brien, and Laurence Gardner. All three are branded ‘pseudohistorians’ by mainstream Sumerian scholars. All three did what journalist Charles McLaren and archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann did before them 37 : they read ancient epics, not as myths, but as records of actual events. 38 A significant trend emerges here. Some of the huge discarded corpus of so-called ‘mythology’ is being dusted off and reconsidered in the light of archaeological and scientific discoveries. J.R.R. Tolkien’s immortal line, ‘History became legend. Legend became myth’ 39 , sums up the inevitable, desiccating effects of time and human attitudes over remembered events and, as it turns out, is especially true of ancient Sumer, forgotten for so long.

Zecharia Sitchin

The 1968 publication of Chariots of the Gods by the Swiss author Erich von Däniken first popularised the theory that advanced extra-terrestrial beings had visited the Earth and made contact with our ancestors in prehistoric times. It was followed eight years later by the ground-breaking book The 12 th Planet, written by Zecharia Sitchin (1920-2010), an Azerbaijani-American Orientalist and biblical scholar 40 who based his findings on his own interpretations of Sumerian/Akkadian cuneiform tablets, archaeology and ancient texts. He offered a radical answer to the question of human origin. ‘Man’, said Sitchin, ‘is the product of evolution but modern Man, Homo sapiens, is the product of the “gods”. For, some time circa 300,000 years ago, the Nefilim took ape-man (Homo erectus) and implanted on him their own image and likeness… Finally, the perfect Man was achieved – the one Enki 41 named Adapa the Bible, Adam our scholars, Homo sapiens.

Who were these ‘gods’? Sitchin believed they were the people referred to in the Book of Genesis 42 as ‘Nephilim’, Hebrew for ‘those who were cast down upon Earth’, who he was convinced came from another planet. Elsewhere he interpreted a Sumerian term for Nephilim – ‘people of the shem’ – as ’people of the fiery rockets’. He identified the Nephilim with a group known in Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonion traditions as the ‘Anunnaki’, also known as the ‘’Grand Assembly’ or ‘Assembly of the Gods’, who were said to have shaped the destiny of the Sumerians. Sitchin’s readings of cuneiform led him to believe that during an early celestial collision, the twelfth planet of the Solar System, Nibiru, home to the Nephilim, had seeded planet Earth with life as a result, the humanoid Earth species selected to be artificially engineered by the Nephilim into servant beings was genetically akin to the Nephilim themselves. He expanded these theories and many more in his seven-volume Earth Chronicles. Sitchin’s work has been much criticized for over-speculative claims, overreaching interpretations and imprecise sourcing and dating nevertheless, his ideas have attracted a vast following.

Christian and Joy O’Brien

In 1985, a British husband and wife team, Christian O’Brien (1914-2001) and Joy O’Brien (1921-2017) 43 , published The Genius of the Few: the story of those who founded the Garden in Eden 44 , later expanded into The Shining Ones 45 (2001). An exploration geologist, Christian O’Brien was one-time head of the Iranian oil industry who was involved in the discovery of the Tchoga Zambil ziggurat in Iran. Developing a keen interest in ancient Mesopotamian civilisations, he noticed a heavy religious slant in the translations he was reading. He came to believe that early Sumerian texts had often been copied by later Babylonian scribes whom he described as ‘inveterate deifiers of archaic personalities’ that because of the ‘ritualistic nature of their developing religious susceptibilities’ they gave their texts a religious veneer and that thousands of years later, late-19 th -century/early 20 th -century translators with their own Judeo-Christian bias often failed to realise the historical value of what lay underneath this veneer. (The ubiquitous phrase ‘ritual significance’ comes to mind here.)

O’Brien taught himself Sumerian/Babylonian cuneiform and Hebrew, then went searching for proven alternative meanings which he scrupulously researched and believed more closely fitted the Sumerian texts and the Book of Genesis creation story. For example, the much-disputed term ‘Elohim’ in the Book of Genesis became ‘The Shining Ones’ or ‘Anannage’ (Sitchin’s Anunnaki) ‘gods’ became ‘lords’ ’heavens’ became ‘the planted highlands’ the original meaning of ‘serpent’ was reinstated to mean ‘a wise man or woman’ and not a snake 46 , and so on. O’Brien was clear that the Anunnaki had ‘descended’, but did not dwell on where they were from.

Christian O’Brien
‘C.A.E. O’Brien’ by Jstars780 (CCBYSA4.0)

Looking at the standard translation of the Sumerian epic Atrahasis 47 , the O’Briens saw that its publication in 1999 predated widespread awareness of in vitro fertilisation, a procedure described in the Sumerian text 48 and it occurred to them that the translators might not have known the precise nature of what they were translating. The O’Briens thought that the original Akkadian translators might not have known what they were translating either, since in vitro fertilisation had been carried out before their time by a long-gone advanced people. So Christian O’Brien made his own translation in the light of modern scientific knowledge, replacing phrases such as ‘shed blood/slaughtered’ with ‘gave blood’ ‘spittle’ with ‘semen’ ‘clay’ with (more speculatively) ‘piece of life/material of life/female ovum’ and ‘birth-goddesses’ with ‘foster-mothers’. O’Brien also suggested that ‘Creatress of Mankind’ 49 , a title given to the birth-goddess in Atrahasis even before she performed the in vitro fertilisation described in Atrahasis, indicates that she might have artificially engineered mankind at an earlier time.

Comparing the O’Briens’ interpretation of the Sumerian texts with Sitchin’s, the writer Edmund Marriage is in little doubt which is the more plausible. He points out that the O’Brien interpretation contains ‘…no Sumerians before 3,378 BC, no slave species, no Niburu, no nuclear wars between the Gods, no 1950’s space technology, space helmets, splash-downs, and no gold used for repairing damaged atmospheres. The Abzu [a word meaning ‘primeval deep source’ which Sitchin said was where precious metals were mined] was in Southern Lebanon not South Africa. Agriculture was re-started at Kharsag in the Southern Bekka and Jordan Valley around 9,400 BC following the Great Younger Dryas Ice Age by… the culture-bearers, who took the technology and seeds around the world in the next 2,000 years… Farming was… delivered into Mesopotamia by the apkalu… under the Enki… the Lord of the Land, and the Enlil… Lord of the Cultivation or Plough, and… Lord of the Spirits. The great cities were dedicated out of respect to the original Anannage leaders and their families, led by An, the monotheistic God of Abraham.’ 50

Laurence Gardner

Laurence Gardner (1943-2010) 51 was a British constitutional historian and lecturer best known for his explorations of Atenism and Judaism, the Knights Templar, the Holy Grail and Freemasonry. His 1999 book Genesis of the Grail Kings 52 explored, among other things, the Anunnaki/Grand Assembly/Assembly of the Gods and the artificial engineering of human beings. Gardner was convinced that the Anunnaki had been living beings. He wrote:

‘Every item of written and pictorial attestation confirms that the ancient Sumerians were absolutely sincere about the existence of the Anunnaki… They were patrons and founders they were teachers and justices they were technologists and kingmakers… but they were certainly not idols of religious worship as the ritualistic gods of subsequent cultures became. In fact, the word which was eventually translated to become “worship” was avod, which meant quite simply “work”. The Anunnaki presence may baffle historians, their language may confuse linguists and their advanced techniques may bewilder scientists, but to dismiss them is foolish. The Sumerians have themselves told us precisely who the Anunnaki were, and neither history nor science can prove otherwise… 53

He added: ‘The eight kings in the pre-Flood list are said to have reigned for a total of sixty-seven shas, a sha being denoted by a circle ◯ = 360° The word comes from sha-at-am, which literally means ‘a passing’, and a 360° passing can be related to the completion of an orbit…. If the Anunnaki had their own orbit and, as the records suggest, their own equivalent of an annual calculation (the 360° sha ◯), then, try as we might to find another explanation for their existence, everything points to their being from another world. In this regard, the King List is quite specific, stating that their office of kingship was “lowered from heaven”.’ 54

In his later writing The Origin of God 55 , Gardner gives a nod to Sitchin’s controversial theory of the Anunnaki being from another planet, but he also proposes that they might have been ‘the surviving descendants of an advanced earthly race which had persisted from very early times’.

‘Laurence Gardner’ by Freiher (CCBYSA4.0)

The Anunnaki and the Epic of Atrahasis

Central to the thinking of these three authors is Atrahasis, a Sumerian/Akkadian epic containing a creation narrative and a flood story. 56 The creation section describes how the Anunnaki take the blood and semen of their own species, mix it with ‘that which is life’ (usually translated as ‘clay’ but thought by Sitchin/the O’Briens/Gardner to have been the ovum of primitive female hominids) in seven male and seven female versions, then implant it into the wombs of fourteen hominid foster-mothers to carry to term and create a lullû or ‘one that is mixed’. This remarkable experiment is done in response to a protest by their own workers who are finding the hard labour on Earth too much and want to be replaced.

What has the Kolbrin to do with the Anunnaki? Below are two Kolbrin references to the Children of God:

Time passed, and the Children of God were grown strong and upright. There was one among them who… knew all things… hidden from the eyes of other men… because he walked with God he was culled out from his kind and brought to… the Gardenplace… In his sleep he… saw before him a being of indescribable glory… who said, “I am the God above all, even above the God of your people… You… are now made my governor on Earth…This will be your labour and, behold, here is your reward.”…The… man saw another form emerging. It was that of a woman, but one such as Fanvar 57 had never seen before… a wraith, an ethereal being. [Later] the Spiritbeing became clothed with flesh… and… rose a mortal woman… God enlightened Fanvar… saying, “This woman was drawn from her compatible abode… Her coming accomplishes something which would otherwise have taken countless generations.”’ 58

A race of men came out of the cold northlands. They were under a wise father and above them was the Grand Company which later withdrew in disgust. This race was the Children of God they knew Truth and lived in the midst of peace and plenty.’ 59

So the Children of God were controlled by a higher power. Who culled Fanvar out from his kind and brought him to the Gardenplace? Who gave him a selected female mate? Who sent the Children of God out of the cold northlands? The answer is ‘the Grand Company’ – surely none other than the Grand Assembly, Assembly of the Gods or Anunnaki.

If the Children of God were controlled by the Grand Company (plural), then why are they called ‘Children of God’ (singular)? Readers will assume this God to be the conventional Judeo-Christian God of the Book of Genesis. But the Old Testament, aside from being a historical record, was ‘specifically designed to underpin a monotheistic faith’ 60 and it has been suggested that Old Testament historians might have replaced the names of multiple gods with the single controller ‘God’, ‘Yahweh’ or ’Jehovah’ in order to promote their beliefs. 61 Bearing in mind that the Egyptian Books, during their long history, are said to have been brought to Britain and kept at Glastonbury Abbey, 62 it is possible that Christian scribes might have done a similar edit and changed ‘Children of the Gods’ to ‘Children of God’ throughout.

The earlier Kolbrin mention of ‘the laws of fate and destiny’ circumscribing human evolution may be relevant here. The Enuma Elis/Babylonian Epic of Creation describes how seven gods (Anunnaki) use an artefact called ‘the Tablet of Destinies’ when planning the future of the Sumerian people. This is the earliest use of the term ‘destiny’, meaning divine power by which events are unalterably predetermined. So, when the Kolbrin says that ‘unlike the beasts and birds their yearnings are circumscribed by the laws of fate and destiny’, it indicates that people differ from other evolved creatures in that their development has additionally been manipulated by a superior power.

Adam Adapa

Could there be a connection between the Anunnaki’s human engineering story in Atrahasis and what happens in the Book of Genesis? There is indeed a link and, intriguingly, it is the Kolbrin which pulls Sumer and the Bible together.

The link lies in two names: Sumerian ‘Adapa’ and Hebrew ‘Adama’. The Sumerian Adapa legend was discovered on tablets in the Nineveh library ruins of King Ashur-banipal of Assyria, and also in the Egyptian archives of Pharaoh Amenhotep III c. 1400 BC the legend tells of Adapa, ‘a semidivine being, the provisioner of Ea’s temple in the city of Eridu. Ea had created, or begotten, him to be a leader among men he had granted him divine wisdom, but he had not granted him the gift of eternal life.’ 63 Ever since these tablets were discovered, scholars have suspected that the Adapa character bears a resemblance to the biblical Adam. Laurence Gardner even writes that ‘Adapa the Adâma was truly a “mighty man” (hu-mannan), who was given extraordinary powers of control, being anointed … into kingship…”’ 64 65

Turning to Genesis, what does the Hebrew name ‘Adam’ mean? The Anchor Bible commentary says, ‘In ‘ādām “man” and ‘ªdāmā “soil, ground” there is an obvious play on words… The closest approach in English to the juxtaposition of the Hebrew nouns… might be “earthling: earth”.’ 66 So Adam Adapa means ‘Adapa the Earthling’.

The Kolbrin’s Gardenplace 67 narrative (a version of the Garden of Eden story 68 ), begins with ‘a being of indescribable glory’ saying to Fanvar… ‘You… are now made my governor on Earth’, which echoes the idea of Adapa as a leader anointed into kingship. The story ends with a spiritbeing reprimanding the man and woman: ‘Woe to you and your house, for the greatest of evils has befallen the race of the Children of God and it is defiled. The heritage of Kadamhapa is lost.’ 69

What is this strange word ‘Kadamhapa’? It looks to be yet another of the Kolbrin’s skewed names. Take it apart – ‘K-adam-hapa’ – and it becomes a garbled version of ‘Adam Adapa’. So what does losing ‘the heritage of Adam Adapa’ mean? There are a few clues. Firstly, we know from Genesis that Adam and his wife Eve were expelled from the Garden of Eden for eating from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil 70 . Secondly, the Adapa Tablet says that the first man, Adapa, was endowed with wisdom but not with immortality. Thirdly, the word ‘heritage’ carries the now-obsolete meaning of ‘lineage’ – a condition transmitted to descendants from their ancestors. Put all these together, and ‘losing the heritage of Adam Adapa’ means losing immortality and leaving the Gardenplace/Eden because Adam Adapa’s descendants, the Children of God, have been defiled by ‘the greatest of evils’.

Defiled. The Kolbrin is speaking about something being tainted or spoiled. And it is clear from what follows that this is nothing less than dramatic and destructive genetic damage.

How does this apply to the Children of God? Tracing their lineage, they were descended from those who struggled harder, whose forefathers had crossed the great dark void, whose desires were turned Godward instead of spending all their time eating, drinking and fornicating like the hominids around them. If the Children of God were descendants of Selok the ape and Heavenman, they would have been mentally more advanced and physically more upright than their fellow hominids. At some point, a few of their females .would have been used for artificial insemination by the Anunnaki. Later on, the most advanced among them, Fanvar, was spotted by the Grand Company, culled out and brought to work in the Gardenplace. There he was granted governorship of the Earth, given a mate, Aruah, and joined by other Children of God 71 .

The female from another realm

Aruah 72 , the woman selected to be Fanvar’s sexual partner, is a most unusual being. The Kolbrin says she first appears as ‘a wraith’ in the form of a woman, ‘but one such as Fanvar had never seen before’. Bear in mind that Fanvar’s species has already been in existence for a long time, so he is used to women of his own kind. One day, says the Kolbrin, when Fanvar lies wounded after fighting off Yoslings (‘not true men but kinsfolk to the beasts of the forest’) the wraith ‘came and lay beside him, taking blood from his wound upon herself so it congealed about her. Thus the Spiritbeing became clothed with flesh, born of congealing blood, and being sundered from his side she rose a mortal woman.’ 73

This impossible text needs another Christian O’Brien to analyse the original wording in modern scientific terms. Fanvar is told that the woman has come ‘from her compatible abode in a realm of beauty… Her coming accomplishes something which would otherwise have taken countless generations.’ This indicates that she has not evolved, so perhaps she has been created and/or moved from another ‘realm’ to Earth. She might have been Anunnaki – we just don’t know. Fanvar is told that: ‘This woman is not as other women, being in no way like yourself every hair of her head is unlike that of a man, every drop of blood and every particle of flesh is that of a woman and quite unlike that of a man. Her thoughts and desires are different she is neither coarse nor uncouth, being altogether of another, more refined realm…’ 74 Engineered with Fanvar’s ‘blood’ (which probably means his DNA), Aruah would have become part-Child of God.

As if to confirm her origins, the Kolbrin goes on: ‘Aruah brought but one thing with her when she crossed the misty frontier, the treasure of Lanevid, the jewel contained in the moonchalice… She followed the ways of the cradleland, not the ways of Earth.’ So Aruah is definitely not from Earth. The text also says that she ‘had twinsight, an ability to see wraiths and sithfolk 75 , ansis 76 and spiritbeings, all the things of the Otherworld, not clearly but as through a veil’. 77

This begs the question: what did Fanvar and Aruah look like? The Anunnaki’s servants – those artifically created to serve them – are portrayed as smooth and hairless and, unlike their masters and mistresses, they are shown working naked.

Ningirsu – Cylinder seal impression, illustrations from The Mythology of All the Races, Semitic [Vol. 5],
Stephen Herbert Langdon (Archaeological Institute of America, 1931) (PD0)

An astonishing pedigree

The Kolbrin lists the descendants of Child of God Fanvar and his sexual partner Aruah, detailing their offspring who mated with other Children of God:

Aruah brought forth a son by Fanvar and he was called Rautoki, and a daughter who was called Armena. Each knew the mysteries of magic and the ways of the stars. In the fullness of time Rautoki married among the daughters of the Sons of God and had two sons, Enanari and Nenduka. It was Enanari who first taught the weaving of cloth from plants, and Nenduka was a mighty hunter. Armena also married among the Sons of God and brought forth a son who was called Belenki and daughters called Ananua and Mameta. Ananua knew the making of pots and things of clay and Mameta the taming of beasts and birds. 78 … Nenduka had two sons, Namtara and Kainan. Namtara had two sons also, Nenduka and Dadam, before dying in the fulness of manhood. Belenki married Enidva and had a son called Enkidua and a daughter called Estartha, meaning Maid of the Morning, and she became a great teacher among The Children of God. This was the Estartha who became the first Moonmaiden, being later called Lady of The Morning Star. Enkidua had a daughter and her name was MaevaDadam, the Firstfather, married Leitha and they had a son called Herthew. Dadam then married Maeva.’ 79

Unpicking the skewed names in bold, ‘D-adam the Firstfather’ must be Adam, and ‘Ma-eva’ is Eve. They were the great-great-grandchildren of Fanvar and Aruah.

By now, the Children of God shared a rich pedigree with differing proportions of

(3) Anunnaki DNA resulting from one or possibly two in vitro fertilisations

(4) Non-Earth DNA from Fanvar’s mate Aruah.

With every addition of non-Earth DNA they were becoming more advanced, and with more and more Anunnaki genes, their lifespans were lengthening.

The Elixir of Life

In case there is any doubt about the Children of God being artificially created, the Kolbrin states that Fanvar, Aruah and the Children of God living with them in the Gardenplace all take special nutritional supplements to keep them healthy:

Within the Gardenland was the Sacred Enclosure, the domain of Fanvar and Aruah, forbidden to those of The Children of God who had now come to this place. It contained the Chalice of Fulfilment… None might drink from this save Fanvar and Aruah. Also there was the Cauldron of Immortality containing an essence distilled from the fruits growing in the garden, and this guarded against mortal ills… 80 Outside the Sacred Enclosure… was a shrine wherein was kept a sacred vessel called Gwinduiva [‘God’s wine] 81 . Above the cup appeared a shimmering moon-coloured mist… At certain times, when the Heavens were in a proper position, the Gwinduiva was filled with moondew and potions from the cauldron within the Sacred Enclosure, making a pale honey-coloured liquor, and this the people drank. However, there were different proportions in the vessel for those of the blood of Fanvar and Aruah and those who were Children of God but not of their blood. It was the potion from the Gwinduiva which kept sickness and disease away from those who drank it.’ 82

Here, surely, is the origin of that most mysterious memory in our collective unconscious 83 , the elixir of life – a liquid which cures every disease and gives eternal life and youth to the drinker. Moving for a moment to the Kolbrin’s Celtic Books, the Book of Britain mentions a moon-chalice which has come from Egypt: ‘The heart of Britain is the moon-chalice which was brought here by the Chief of the Kasini… It was kept secure with the Grailstone and the ever-virgin vessel which brought down the rays of the sun… these treasures of Egypt came to Britain. This was the secret of Britain. 84 The text also says that, ‘at the midsummer festival the Chief of All the Druthin [Druids] collapsed … died in the arms of Joseph our father [Joseph of Arimathea]. It was he who received the moon chalice and the light of Britain. 85 If it passed into the keeping of Joseph of Arimathea, then the Gwinduiva/moon-chalice from the Gardenplace and the legendary Grail might well have been one and the same.

he Holy Grail of Valencia – an agate cup believed to have been used by Jesus at the Last Supper
‘Holy Grail of Valencia’ by Jmjriz (CCBYSA4.0)

Genetic damage – the Fall of Man

Initially the Anunnaki bred human beings to do their heavy work, including agriculture and gardening 86 , but the Kolbrin makes clear that later on, the best human specimen was nurtured with nutritional supplements, bred with a non-Earth female, and the resulting species protected so that they and their descendants would experience disease-free and lengthy lifespans, perhaps nearing those of their Anunnaki creators. What happened to end this remarkable genetic programme? The Bible’s story of Eve, the serpent, the apple and sexual shame is too well known to repeat here. What is not known is the tragic story told in the Kolbrin’s Book of Creation 87 – so similar in outline and yet so different in essentials from the Bible’s Garden of Eden story 88 . Here it is, slightly abridged, with square bracketed comments:

About the land of The Children of God was the wasteland where Yoslings… They Who Inherit Death, dwelt. Amongst these, Namtenigal, the wily hunter, was the most wise and cunning he alone was unafraid of The Children of God and he alone dared enter the Gardenland.’

[Namtenigal the Yosling is called ‘the wily hunter… the most wise and cunning’ and in the next paragraph, ‘the wily one’. This might well have been the original use of the word ‘serpent’ which Biblical scribes took to mean ‘snake’]

‘… When Estartha [a great-grandchild of Fanvar] was teaching, Namtenigal often came to hear her words and the Children of God were not displeased, for teaching the wild men about them was a duty with which they had been charged.’ [A duty charged by whom? Presumably, by the Anunnaki].

Namtenigal, therefore, participated in their rites but could not partake of the elixir from the Gwinduiva, because this was forbidden. While it gave health and strength to the Children of God, safeguarding them from the sicknesses of the Yoslings, if given to others it caused a wasting away. It was also altogether forbidden for any of the Children of God to mate with the Yoslings, for this was deemed to be the most unforgivable of sins.’

[Forbidden to mate with Yoslings by whom? Presumably, by the Anunnaki.]

‘Now, the wily one learned much from Estartha and in the fulness of time brought his own son to her and he became as her son, living in her house and forsaking the ways of his people. Estartha called him Lewid the Lightbringer, for it was her intention that he should be taught the ways of those who walked in light, that he might in time enlighten his own people. Lewid grew up tall and handsome, he was quick to learn and became wise. He was also a man of the chase, strong and enduring, a hunter of renown. But there were times when the call of his people was strong, then he would go out furtively into the night to indulge in their dark rituals. Thus he became knowledgeable in the ways of the flesh and in the carnal indulgences of the body.

Beside the place called Gisar was a pleasant parkland with trees of every kind and a stream, also thickets of flowering bushes and all manner of plants growing lushly. It was the custom of Maeva [Fanvar’s great-great-granddaughter, wife to Dadam] to wander there… and Lewid also went there so it came about that they met among the trees. Maeva … saw he was handsome, possessed of many attractions, so… she did not run away. As the days passed they dallied longer together and Lewid talked of things Maeva had not heard before. She felt a stirring in her blood but did not respond or heed his temptations, because of the things which were forbidden.

So Lewid went to the Moonmother, wise woman of the Yoslings, and… beseeched her to help him. The Moonmother gave him two apples containing a vile substance which they had drawn through their stalks this Lewid gave to Maeva who then became helpless in his hands. They met again after this, for Maeva became enamoured towards Lewid, but it happened that she became ill with a strange sickness and was afraid. Then Dadam became ill and Lewid also, and Lewid said to the woman, “You must obtain the pure essences from within the Sacred Enclosure, and Setina, the Moonmother, will prepare an elixir which will cure us”. This he said because none of his kind had ever been able to obtain the Sacred Substances, though they had always coveted what had been denied them. Now, because of her frailty, the woman was pliable in his hands and Lewid seized the opportunity.’ [Apples are used in this version to convey a sedating drug.]

To achieve his ends Lewid gave Maeva a potion which had been prepared by the Moonmother and she administered this to Dadam and those with him, by guile and deceit, so that they fell asleep. While they slept Maeva stole from the Sacred Substances and took them to Lewid who gave them to the Moonmother, and she made a brew. Part of this was given to Maeva and the rest was drunk by the Yoslings, from their awful ankital during their night rites. When the morning came they were all smitten with grievous pains, and before the sun set that day all the Yoslings were stricken with a sickness such as they had not known before.’ [‘Ankital’ sounds like a container of some kind, maybe a cauldron.]

Maeva took what had been given to her and finding Dadam/ laid low in his bed gave him a draught from her vessel, though she had to use womanly wiles to get him to drink it. She drank the remainder and they both slept. But when they awoke in the morning both were suffering pains and this was something they had not known before. Dadam said to the woman, “What have you done, for what has happened to us cannot be unless the things which are forbidden have been done”. The woman replied, “…I was tempted…. I have done that which is forbidden and unforgivable”.

Dadam said, “… let us go into the Gisar… where I will seek enlightenment”. So they went there together and stood before the shrine beneath the Tree of Wisdom. There they were filled with an inflowing vision, seeing themselves as they were and as they should have been, and they were ashamed. He because he had not followed the proper path of a man and she because of her falsity. There, in the reflecting mist, the contamination of the woman was revealed, and the man’s heart shrivelled within him like a flower licked by flame.

Then they saw a great Spiritbeing materialising in the reflecting mist and he said to them, “Woe to you and your house, for the greatest of evils has befallen the race of the Children of God and it is defiled. The heritage of Kadamhapa is lost. The fetid flow defiling the woman 89 results from the incompatible intermingling, but it is not all, for sicknesses and diseases are also generating from the ferments of the impure implantation”.

Dadam said, “The fault is with the woman, wherefore should I suffer?” The Spiritbeing replied, “Because you two are now as one the cankerworms of disease and sickness strike both equally, but you shall not again defile this place. Henceforth, the misty veil becomes an impenetrable barrier severing our two realms from each other, so they can no longer be easily spanned. Between us there will now be no means of communication. Henceforth, man and woman, fated [destined] to unite in love divine, shall be divided and set apart, though ever yearning reunion. They may cleave one to the other, seeking the unity which will rekindle the flame, but unless their efforts transcend the limitations of earthly things they will be in vain. The spirit of man is now severed from the whole and cast again into unconsciousness… The web of fate is rewoven and the paths of destiny remade, the design of life is redrawn again the progression begins in ignorance, birth and death, pain and pleasure, joy and sorrow, success and failure, love and hate, peace and war…. This is a new beginning but a beginning not in purity… but one already weighted with debts and burdens… the decrees forbidding certain things were for your own benefit. Immortality was nearly within your reach, but had you achieved this you would have brought an even more grievous evil upon yourselves and your inheritors, for freed from servitude to change, you and they would have been unable to progress”.

The Children of God were driven out of the gardenland by Spiritbeings, and then guardians were set at its gates so none could re-enter. Then it was withdrawn beyond the misty veil, the waters ceased to flow and the fertility departed, only a wilderness remained. The Children of God went to dwell in the land of Amanigel, which is beyond the mountains of Mashur by the sea of Dalemuna.’ 90

Why was Ma-eva tempted?

This narrative raises many difficult questions. What made Ma-eva want to stray in the first place? The Kolbrin says she was attracted to Lewin the Yosling because he was ‘tall and handsome… quick to learn… wise… a hunter of renown… [and also] knowledgeable… in the carnal indulgences of the body.’ Eventually, Lewin used a drug to have his way with her, but it appears that was not the whole story. Was curiosity a factor? Could the fact that Children of God males had desires that ‘were turned Godward’ indicate that they had lower libidos than their womenfolk? Sumerian literature is clear that the Anunnaki were a highly-sexed species, and Ma-eva had Anunnaki DNA in her, in addition to which her great-great-grandmother, Aruah had not evolved on Earth and might have been highly-sexed, passing on the characteristic to her descendants.

What was lost by interbreeding with hominids

When the Children of God interbred with more primitive species, adulterating their carefully-engineered DNA, it was without a doubt the worst trauma in human history. The loss must have been almost inconceivable:

  • Men’s and women’s DNA was now inextricably mixed with that of short-living hominids and their lifespans were doomed to dwindle.
  • They would now be vulnerable to the many diseases endemic on Earth.
  • Genetically, the Children of God’s descendants would be thrown back into a more primitive state. They would have to retrace the developmental path they had originally leap-frogged by being artificially engineered, but this time round they would receive no help from the Anunnaki, whose plan they had thwarted. Instead, theirs would be the lengthy evolutionary path, weighted down with problems, encountering for the first time human-style birth and death, pain and pleasure, joy and sorrow, success and failure, love and hate, peace and war.
  • Human beings could no longer communicate with another dimension. The spirit of man was cut off from the cosmic whole and cast into ‘unconsciousness’.
  • Men and women would never again achieve unity with their mates unless their efforts transcended physical sex.

The spiritbeing’s words indicate that up to now, the artificially-engineered Children of God had lived a protected, contented and balanced life. This was their Golden Age.

The Children of God were not the only ones to suffer. The Yoslings had drunk a substance designed to nurture the Children of God if given to non-Children of God, it caused ‘a wasting away.’ Whether this was an affliction that continued down the generations, we are not told.

A shorter lifespan

Immortality was nearly within your reach’ says the spiritbeing when he reprimands D-adam and Ma-eva in the Gardenplace. This was probably not immortality in the sense of never dying. Gardner points out: ‘The Anunnaki were not immortal. There are no records so far discovered which related to their natural deaths, but numerous accounts refer to their individual deaths by means of war and violence.’ 91 So why were the part-Anunnaki Children of God described as having been on their way to becoming ‘immortal’? The answer must be that the long-lived Anunnaki were perceived as immortal by the shorter-living Children of God.

From ancient records, we know that before the Worldwide Flood, Mesopotamian rulers and the patriarchs referred to in the Book of Genesis lived extremely lengthy lives. The kings recorded on the Sumerian King List were noted for their remarkably long reigns. ‘After the kingship descended from heaven, Alumim’s reign in Eridug lasted 28800 years. Alaljar ruled for 36000 years… After the flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven… Jucur’s reign in Kic lasted 1200 years. Kullassina-bel ruled for 960 years, Nanjiclicma ruled for 670 years.’ 92 The Genesis patriarchs had lifespans which ran into many hundreds of years: Adam 930, Seth 912, Enosh 905, Cainan 910, Mahalalel 895, Jared 962, Enoch 365, Methuselah 060, Lamech 777, Noah 950. After the Worldwide Flood: Shem 600, Arphaxad 438, Shelah 433, Eber 464, Peleg 239… down to Abraham 175. Could it be that the Sumerian rulers all carried Anunnaki DNA, and that the Genesis patriarchs possessed some Anunnaki DNA which gave them long lives too?

Genesis 6:3 says: ‘And the Lord said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years.’ This suggests that after the Garden of Eden/Gardenplace mismatings, the human lifespan dropped to 120 years.

The Kolbrin is unique in spelling out how the human lifespan shortened:

It came about that the sons of The Children of God mated with the daughters of The Children of Men… The covenant had been broken [the pact that the Children of God should mate only within their own species 93 ]… This was when the years of man’s life were lessened because he became fully Earth-sustained, but he remained full of vigour…’ 94

Full of vigour’ suggests that humans might have been expected to weaken as their lives shortened, but this did not happen.

Ten thousand generations had passed since the beginning [the events of the Gardenplace]… The Children of God and The Children of Men had passed into dust and only men remained. One hundred generations had passed since the overwhelming deluge… Once man lived for less than two score years, now his years were three score and ten.’ 95

In the second snippet, the Kolbrin refers to a time when man only lived to be 40. Since the ‘overwhelming deluge’/the Worldwide Flood is mentioned in the previous sentence, post-Flood conditions might have been so appalling that humans lived brief lives. Another possibility is that after the second mismating between longer-lived, part-Anunnaki Children of God and short-lived hominids, the human lifespan dropped to 40 and then rose gradually over many generations during which the Children of God ‘mated out’ among the Children of Men, spreading their longer-living DNA and redressing the balance to the three-score-and-ten which was the length of a generation in the Old Testament.

The world’s first redhead

After her sexual mismating with Lewid the Yosling, Child of God Ma-eva conceived and gave birth to a daughter – ‘Gwineva the cuckoochild fathered by Abrimenid of Gwarthon, son of Namtenigal, whom we call Lewid the Darkfather’ 96 [the Serpent]. In old Welsh, gwyn=ache, pain or smart, gwynn=white, and the name Guinevere means ‘white ghost’.

Gwineva, says the Kolbrin, was the first person in the world to be born with red hair 97 . ‘Though all knew there were fair-haired and dark-haired people, none had ever seen anyone with red hair.’ 98 Even to this day, writes Jacky Colliss Harvey in her book Red: A History of the Redhead, the red hair gene MC1R is often seen on men as wild, and on women as ‘unrestrainedly sexual’, 99 and where teasing is concerned, ‘gingers’ are usually considered fair game.

Red hair and the Elixir of Life combined in a single image: The Damsel of the Sanct Grael, Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1874) (PD0)

Rita Hayworth in The American Magazine, 1942 (PD0)

Portrait of King Henry VIII (PD0)

Rupert Grint of Harry Potter Fame
‘Rupert Grint 2012’ by Paul Bird (CCBY2.0)

The second mismating

Once all men were dark and hairy and in those days woman was tempted by the strength and wildness of the beast which dwelt in the forest 101 , and the race of man was defiled again 102 .

Later on and for a second time, states the Kolbrin, the Daughters of God had sex with more primitive hominids. ‘Therefore the Spirit of God was wrathful against woman…’ Is this an echo of the earlier text stating that the Grand Company withdrew in disgust? The Kolbrin continues, ‘Now, because of the wickedness that was done, there are among men those who are the Children of the Beast, and they are a different people. The race of man alone was punished, for the beast acted according to its nature. In man the beast and god strive to decide whether he shall take his place among the gods that live or the beasts that die, and woman, in her weakness, betrayed him to the beast.’ 103

Gradually a new species began to proliferate: the Children of Men. The Kolbrin gives us glimpses of them. ‘They were wild and savage clothed in the skins of beasts they lived like beasts… woman was subject to man, and he imposed his will upon her and dominated her’ 104 . Eventually ‘the daughters of the Children of God consorted with the sons of the Children of Men and were become unlike true women 105 .’ Among many other changes, it sounds as if the male appearance changed too. By the time of the second mismating, ‘all men were dark and hairy’ (this suggests that previously they had not been hirsute) ‘and in those days woman was tempted by the strength and wildness of the beast which dwelt in the forest’. This indicates that the Children of Men had degenerated genetically to a point where there was little difference between them and the beast which dwelt in the forest. Since that time, bodily hairiness has been associated with the savage, the primitive, the beast.

What was lost by the second mismating

How did the second ‘defilement’. affect mankind? Two incidents of mismating with two different species, a Yosling and a beast of the forest, would have introduced vast amounts of primitive genes into the Children of God’s advanced DNA. This double input would have increased their vulnerability to disease exponentially up to then, according to the Kolbrin, the Children of God been drinking a substance from the moon-chalice which kept sickness at bay in addition, Fanwar/Adam and Aruah/Eve and their direct descendants had been drinking special essences from the Cauldron of Immortality, which guarded against ‘mortal ills’. From now on these substances would be useless in protecting the Children of God’s altered DNA against disease, and their lifespan would be shortened even further.

The two mismatings changed women’s lives forever. The Children of God ‘valued woman highly and protected her from crudeness and cruelty’ but among the Children of Men who evolved from the mismating, woman was regarded as ‘a chattel… an object for the satisfaction of his lust and the servant to supply his needs…He subdued her and kept her in servitude, for her betrayal of man was known even among them [the Children of Men], and it was never forgotten, nor could it be forgiven’. It was woman and woman alone who was responsible for the double genetic damage to the Children of God by mating, first, with a Yosling, then with a beast of the forest. She did herself a great disservice, for while the Children of God regarded woman as man’s equal, the Children of Men punished her by using her as a sex-slave and dogsbody, which became the norm for many thousands of years.

As for the Anunnaki, they turned away disgusted and, presumably, disappointed as they watched increased hominid genes gradually transforming the Children of Men back into primitives ‘filled with hostility’, libidinous and misogynist, turning away from the agricultural skills they had learnt and worshipping warfare instead 106 .

But the Anunnaki’s Frankenstein creation had a couple of surprises in store: first, due to some mysterious genetic factor, some of the daughters born to the Children of Men grew up to be extraordinarily beautiful – possibly more beautiful even than Anunnaki women. We know this because both Genesis 107 and the Kolbrin 108 tell us that Anunnaki men started lusting after them, interbred with them, and the result was giants if you believe Genesis, monstrosities if you prefer the Kolbrin version both Genesis and the Kolbrin agree that these liaisons eventually led to ‘wonderfully big and mighty fighting men and ‘mighty men which were of old, men of renown’. Secondly, despite increasing illness and shorter lives, the Children of Men did not wilt and die as expected: they proved to be strong and vigorous.

Homo sapiens

As scientists learn more and more about the human genome, we are all curious to know more about our species’ past. Yet, unbelievably, our early history seems to have been lost in the mists of time, and if we are to believe what the Kolbrin says about our beginnings, then we can only conclude that when the Book of Genesis came to be written, the scribes had so little idea what they were writing about that the extraordinary events ended up in garbled form which have never made much sense to anybody.

The Kolbrin account bubbles with elements which have reverberated down the ages and still float in our collective unconscious today, though we don’t know why. Generation after generation, why do so many women feel a nagging feeling of guilt that they can’t pin down? Why are some men born with an innate sense of misogyny, disliking women and not knowing why? Why, throughout history, have some groups felt they needed to keep their race ‘pure’? Why are red-headed or ginger-haired people often ostracised? Why is it that the bestselling paperback The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail 109 and spin-off movie The Da Vinci Code, both with a sacred bloodline as their theme, have touched a universal chord with readers and movie-goers alike?

The events described in the Kolbrin forge an inextricable link between Sumer and the Book of Genesis. Could it be that, in its own inimitable way, the Kolbrin tells it like it was: that a species of great ape interbred by chance with aliens wandering the planet and became upright hominids? That the Grand Company came across these unusual beings and artificially engineered them, the first time as workers, the second time to be the Earth’s most advanced creatures? That their marvellous creations then blew it all by wilfully preferring sex with great apes? That, as a result, the Children of Gods/God found themselves deserted by the disgusted Grand Company and surrounded by increasing numbers of aggressive, hairy, women-hating Children of Men who, like it or not, were their offspring and descendants? And, after thousands of generations and endless intermingling, ‘the Children of God and the Children of Men… passed into dust, and only men remained’ 110 ?

What we do know is that those who remained were a short-lived, disease-prone species known as Homo sapiens – us.

Rejoinders Aside, Now on to the Real Meat of the Post

LE May Have a Prime Suspect in the Delphi Murders, and His Name is Mr. X

If you followed Leigh Kerr’s leak on Reddit, Leaker said that LE has a prime suspect in this case. We will refer to him from now on as Mr. X. I don’t want to use his name or his initials. When discussing this man in the comments, always refer to him as Mr. X. Please refer to his wife as Mrs. X. Don’t use either his name or his initials. We have to be fair here. Leave this man alone if you know who he is. We aren’t vigilantes here in America. We’re better than that. Besides, who knows if he did it or not? You think he did it? Fine, prove it. See, you can’t. Welcome to America. This is the price you pay to live in a free country.

He went into a number of details about Mr. X.

This is just some football player. I don’t even know his name. I think this photo is from high school when this man was on the football team. This photo was supposedly taken in the early 1980’s somewhere in Illinois. Look at him. He looks like a good young man. I bet he was a good kid in high school. He has that look about it. If I had to guess, I’d say he grew up, got married, had a couple of kids, and devoted his life to living in Godly ways. He’s just got that saintly look about him, you know? I’m putting this photo in here to break up the tedium and give you a respite from all the gruesome news. I’m also showing you how popular high school football is Delphi and surrounding towns. They don’t call it the all-American sport for nothing! You can see that this photo is completely unimportant. It’s nothing. Just forget about it. Forget you even saw it. Why did I put a pointless photo in this article, a photo that has nothing to do with the story? I think I’ve been doing this too long. Maybe I need a vacation!

We have a lot more on Mr. X in this previous update.

A photo of some citizens in the crowd at the 2019 town hall where Detective Carter said, “The killer may even be in the room right now.” Some say Mr. X was at this conference. That’s certainly possible and it may be why Carter was so livid with rage. But if he was there, I doubt if he was one of these people. I don’t any of their names. But look these people. The hard, determined, caring, traumatized looks on their faces. I bet they’re all just regular concerned citizens, good people whose hearts have been broken by these awful murders. With so much horror around, we forget how many good, decent, everyday people there are out there. Let’s say a prayer for these worried citizens and their heavy hearts. Other than that, please just ignore this photo because it’s not important. Just forget about its, ok? I can’t stop putting dumb irrelevant posts in my articles. Stop me before I post again!

Leaker said that LE thinks Mr. X did it, but they don’t have enough evidence on him to take it to court.

/>A couple of Delphi residents. I’m assuming this is a middle-aged man and his daughter, right? Who knows? I have no idea who they are. I bet these two are good citizens. They’re probably outraged and shaken to the bone by these murders. The man probably thinks, “They could have been my daughters.” The woman thinks, “It could have been me.” I bet they are both deeply religious, children of God. I’m putting this up there to show you how many good, kindhearted, compassionate people there are in that town. Lot of good people in Delphi. This photo isn’t very important. It’s nothing, really. I’d just ignore it if I were you. I don’t know why I keep putting these meaningless pictures in here. Can someone tell me please? Maybe I need a therapist?

In case you are wondering, there are cases like this all over the country. I can even think of some serials who are running around free where LE believes that they committed several homicides. One is named the Lewiston Killer. There is a child serial killer who has killed several little girls over the past 10-20 years. LE is pretty sure they know who did it, but they don’t have enough on him to make a case. So he walks free. And these aren’t the only two.

A former girlfriend got shot in the head by her husband. He said she committed suicide but that was not possible, and further his behavior after he shot her was very weird. LE detained him for a while. Once he visited her at the hospital with LE, and he was chained to a room heater in the hospital room. I believe they detained him for a couple of weeks and released him. They didn’t have enough evidence against him to bring a case to trial.

The OJ Simpson case is also instructive.

Bottom line is murderers get away with it all the time in this country, and in a number of cases, LE is pretty sure they know who did it, but they simply don’t have enough evidence to take it to court. DA’s won’t dare touch a homicide case, much less a serial or multiple homicide case, unless they think they have enough evidence for a conviction. Otherwise the case never goes to trial. We have trial by jury in this country, and everyone is innocent until proven guilty. We can’t go around killing people because someone thinks they might have maybe killed someone.

Why Are People Going out of Their Way to Protect Mr. X?

There is a man named Jordan McCoy on Facebook pretending to be Leigh Kerr. In fact, McCoy doesn’t even exist. He’s just a sock for a guy named Scott Alexander, and Alexander isn’t Leaker either. Scott’s only purpose is to be to pretend he was Leaker in order to draw suspicion away from the prime suspect, Mr. X, for unknown reasons.

There are some locals who are going out of their way to protect Mr. X. They are insisting that he could not possibly have done it. Some of their behavior is downright weird. Perhaps they are doing this out of loyalty to their friend. That said, these protectors probably ought to be named because their behavior is pretty off.

Anthony Greeno spends most of his time trying to deflect attention away from Mr. X. Greeno happens to be a hunting partner of Mr. X. I do not know why Greeno so vociferously defends Mr. X. Perhaps it is due to their friendship.

There is another very odd character named Caleb Bowlin, a Delphi resident. A lot of people are suspicious of him. He was 21 at the time of the crime, and he’s a dead perfect match for the second sketch. I don’t know what that means. He’s gone completely overboard defending Mr. X and saying he could not possibly have done it. At one time a couple of people were trying to go look at the crime scene, and he was literally blocking them with his body to keep them away. I don’t know why he is doing this. There is no evidence that this man is involved in this crime.

Bowlin presented himself to Leazenby’s office and told the sheriff that there were rumors going around that he was BG. Bowlin offered to give DNA and take a lie detector test. Leazenby said, “Caleb, if we ever need you for any of that, we’ll contact you.” Based on this, LE does not suspect Bowlin of being part of this crime.

Who Is Leigh Kerr?

The pastor of a small Pentecostal church from Lafayette, Joe Wampler, is Leigh Kerr. Leaker is the man who held a session on Reddit where he told people he had accessed case documents and he was going to leak details about the case. He was angry that the case had gone on this long with no resolution. He proceeded to tell quite a tale about what he had learned from these documents. His revelations are here. Leaker stirred up a huge storm and a large consensus is that he’s a liar and a fraud. I think that is incorrect. I regard him as credible for various reasons.

He posted accidentally under his real name and profile as if he were still answering questions as Leigh Kerr. His wife has indeed been traced back to a local courthouse worker. Rumor is she saw a lot of these documents and ran them off. I just spoke to a woman who knows this couple very well, and she insisted to me that this man is straight up man of God type. His word is good and his morals are strong. He’s the last person to make up stupid lies. He’s pure integrity, a class act.

Theory That BG Videotaped His Crime with a GoPro Camera and Sent the Photos to One of the Girls’ Phones after the Crime

Leaker also said that BG sent photos or videos to one of the girls’ phones after the crime. This has also been (somewhat) vindicated. These same document(s) in my possession say that LE is looking for photos, videos, videocameras, cameras, and film in relation to this case. Obviously, LE thinks BG filmed his crime. Profiler John Kelly, who believes that Leaker should be at least given the benefit of the doubt until proven false, thanked Harvey Carroll, another good (albeit narcissistic) Delphi Murders podcaster, for his work on the BG photo in which Carroll found that BG is apparently wearing a Go-Pro camera. Kelly agreed that the photo does show BG wearing such a camera. I agree with Kelly and Carroll.

This is a possible Go Pro camera on BG’s belt. It is definitely looking like BG filmed this crime.

Attacking Leigh Kerr (Leaker)

Trashing Leigh Kerr, Part 1. On Reddit, people are saying that Leigh Kerr has been proven to be a fake and a liar. Leigh Kerr has not proven to be completely correct (though some of his testimony checks out), but hasn’t yet been debunked either.

No one knows anything about Leigh Kerr’s stories, but one of them, new information that BG had binoculars that he used in his ploy the capture the girls, has been validated. I have official document(s) which state that LE is looking for binoculars in relation to this case.

Trashing Leaker, Part 2. From Reddit, Leaker is accused of lying because in the part of the audio not released, BG can be heard telling the girls he’s railroad police, he spotted the girls trespassing with binoculars, the girls were were now under arrest for trespassing, and he’s now handcuffing them. Reddit said this could not be true because if it was, LE would have released it to the public.

First of all, this guy never read Leaker’s account in the first place. Because if he had, he would note that Leaker said that this account was only deciphered after long painstaking work with audio experts who managed to clean up the completed garbled audio on Libby’s phone. Even cleaned up, you can barely hear a thing. However, these experts transcribed what they thought was being said in this encounter. It is from this deciphering that LE concluded that the conversation above took place. Leaker said LE did not release it because one, even cleaned up, it’s a complete mess and undecipherable without a lot of expensive equipment, and two, they didn’t think it would be of any additional help to release it to the public.

No Such Crime as “Interfering with an Investigation”

No such crime as Interfering with an Investigation. This poster also repeated the favorite that Leaker should be arrested for some fake crime called “interfering with an investigation.” There have been calls for years to have me arrested on this fake crime too. We’ve succeeded in making half of life illegal so far in the land of the free (sic), but this isn’t really a crime. I think it is only a crime on the federal level, and it’s never used the way these people think think it is.

It’s a BS law, often used by the FBI and other feds when they want to take someone down but they can’t get anything on you. I don’t like the FBI. If the FBI wants to take you down, you go down. They will search through your life with a fine toothcomb, and if you do that with most people, you will find some idiot law someone broke somewhere somehow. So this is one of those fake crimes (like “Lying to the FBI” – another fake crime) that they use for political purposes. The only time I’ve ever seen it used was to charge someone in the recent Russiagate (a fake scandal about a fake event – something that never happened in the first place) prosecutions.

They charged someone with “interfering with an investigation” for destroying documents relevant to the case in order to avoid prosecution. In other words, destruction of evidence. As far as whether I am “interfering with an investigation,” let’s see what LE told me about my reporting on this case:

ISP: “We don’t care what you write. Go ahead and write whatever you want. And if you ever write anything sensitive that we want taken down, we will contact you, ok?” Phone conversation between me and and ISP detective, Spring 2017.

FBI: “We don’t care about Lindsay.” Conversation between FBI agent and a suspect when detaining him to get a DNA sample at an FBI office in Michigan, 2018.

Supporting Leigh Kerr

Backing up Leaker, Part 3. On Reddit, at least one poster defended Leaker, saying that they had been talking to people close to the Delphi investigation, and they backed up much of what Leaker said.

Specifically, his sources concurred that there was at least some luring of the girls to the site. Leaker said that Libby was catfished on Snapchat with the second sketch of the young man.

His sources agreed that Mr. X was someone that LE looked at very hard at least at one point if possibly not at the moment.

They also agreed with agreed that the girls were posed in a sexual tableau.

Abandoning Mr. X as a Suspect (Bad Idea)

Sleuths abandoning Mr. X as a Suspect. Mr. X’s daughter has made an appearance in Facebook groups, saying that he’s the greatest guy in the world, and he couldn’t possibly have done this. However, family members of a number of convicted killers, even serial killers, have said similar things. She also said her father never lost his keys. Becky Patty, who is a friend of Mr. X’s wife, said that Mrs. X told her that Mr. X did not lose his keys.

These comments from wife, daughter, and friends defending Mr. X and questioning the official narrative have caused a large group of sleuths abandon Mr. X as a suspect. As if a suspect’s wife and daughter would not be expected to vouch for him. And as it turns out, the fact that he didn’t lose his keys after all does not clear Mr. X from suspicion. In fact, it makes him even more suspicious.

More on Mr. X, the Possible Prime Suspect in the Case

First of all, as noted above, Leaker seems vindicated in part about Mr. X being the prime suspect in the case. A Reddit poster said he asked around to a number of Delphi “insider” types, and they told him that indeed LE had looked at Mr. X very hard as a suspect, if possibly not at the moment.

Beyond that, we have a retired LE officer working with us and we sent him to work with his LE colleagues on Mr. X. This man came back and told us that not only is Mr. X the prime suspect in these murders, but they also suspect him in other murders.

In my previous post, I talked about how Mr. X said he lost his keys during the search for the girls. That story has gotten completely garbled with Becky Patty, Mr. X’s daughter, and Mrs. X, Mr. X’s wife, all saying that Mr. X never lost his keys. The thing is that new information I got says that they are all correct! Mr. X indeed never lost his keys. But it’s worse than that.

First of all, Mr. X asked Ron Logan permission to search his land at 6:30 PM on February 13, three hours after the girls were murdered. Ron thought it was an odd request but he granted it because Mr. X was a neighbor who lived only 2 miles away. But there is a problem with Mr. X asking this permission. The Fire Department only announced the formation of a search party at 7 PM. Before that, nobody much even knew the girls were missing, although LE had been notified at 5:30 PM. The only people out searching were family and friends of the girls. No one else knew that the girls were even missing.

Which begs the question, How did Mr. X know that the girls were missing in the first place before anyone else did? Was he in the area when they went missing? That looks bad because his alibi said he was in another town altogether. If he was in another town at the time of the murders, when did he come home? And why, when he came back into town, did he decide to go to the bridge to look for the girls when he had no idea they were missing?

The only way this makes sense is if Mr. X was not in another town but was in the bridge area. But there goes his alibi. Now he’s in even more trouble. Furthermore, why on Earth did he specifically ask to search Ron Logan’s property, which is exactly where the girls were killed? Why did he park his truck hidden at the cemetery directly above the crime scene? Why didn’t he park at Ron’s front door if he wanted to knock and ask permission to search his land?

By 6:30 it was dark and it would have been hard to see the girls who were in a hidden ravine that was very hard to see. Also, two other men searched Ron’s land that night. They didn’t find the girls either, adding credulity to the notion that they were hard to see where they were in the dark.

Nevertheless, Mr. X’s alibi that he was out of town, came back into town and went to the bridge for no reason, and then decided to search for the girls without knowing they were missing obviously makes no sense.

Some Mr. X Background

Mr. X owned some property there where he raised goats and hunted deer, but I’m not sure what else he did. Mr. X has two children, a younger daughter who is a very out lesbian and an older daughter, about 30 and unmarried. He has been married to Mrs. X for some time, possibly 10+ years. She is 10 years younger than he is, an attractive woman.

Mr. X is a big fan of Harley Davidson motorcycles and an extremely avid deer hunter. We have not been able to find information about his employment at any time. His wife most recently worked at a bank, but she was caught stealing money from the bank two years ago and was fired.

He was born in 1965 in Illinois and is 55 years old and looks his age. He grew up in Illinois but moved to Indiana around 2000 at age 35. We know little about his life before 2000.

From 2000-2010, he moved around Indiana, moving about once a year to a new town. He settled in Delphi in 2011 and lived there for 10 years, mostly with his wife. In 2011-2012, he was separated from his wife and lived with a male roommate. He and his wife just moved early this year. I believe they now reside in Monticello. The latest I have heard is that they moved back to Illinois, but that may just be a rumor. He obviously thinks the heat is on him.

I have obtained a videotape of him playing with his granddaughters. His voice sounds a lot like BG’s, and he refers to his two young granddaughters as “guys.” In the videotape, his walk looks a lot like BG’s walk.

I have a photograph of him with his daughters from 2009 when they were girls. The older daughter looks remarkably like Libby German, and the younger daughter looks remarkably like Abby Williams in that photo. I’m not sure if that means anything. They are posing with their father next to the carcass of a deer he has shot.

He seems to have many friends in the Delphi area with the whole town on his friends page. I have a photo of him and Sheriff Tobe Lozenby posing with a hunting rifle, clearly a gag photo. Apparently he was close to Sheriff Lozenby at one point. Mr. and Mrs. X are close to the Pattys. Libby had met Mr. X a couple of times, but Becky Patty did not think Libby would recognize him. Becky is currently defending him, probably because he is a friend of the family.

Considering that the killer catfished Libby only via Snapchat for four months and specifically targeted her for the murder, it is interesting because he knew her grandparents well so presumably he was quite familiar with Libby. Perhaps he had seen her regularly and begun to have sexual and homicidal fantasies of her.

Around the time of the crime, Mr. X was about the same height and weight as BG. Since the murders, he has gained

50 pounds. After the crime, he talked so much about the murders to anyone who would listen that people started to get suspicious of him. It is not known if any locals turned him in to the tipline. Mr. X owns a hunting cap that is a replica of the one worn by BG, but perhaps that is a common hat in the area. I have seen photos of him with jeans and a jacket almost exactly like BG’s jeans and jacket, but perhaps those are common garments among men in that area. He very closely resembles BG when his face is put side by side by BG’s. None of these things are incriminating enough to take a case to court.

Mr. X’s Wife Says Mr. X Fooled Her for Many Years until She Discovered He was a “Monster” and an “Evil Force”

The wife is a curious case. There is a rumor that she posted to Facebook that she thought she knew Mr. X, but she had discovered that he was a “monster.” I have not been able to find that post.

However, backing that up somewhat, I have screenshots of a woman, Ms. Y, who knew Mr. and Mrs. X for a long time. Ms. Y said she had suspected Mr. X from the very first day after the news about the lost keys and his truck being parked right above the crime scene came out.

Ms. Y described the couple as “very, very strange.” This tells me absolutely nothing about any human being. Instead I want to know precisely what it is about this couple that Ms. Y finds so strange. Anyway, it does add suspicion to Mr. X.

Ms. Y said that their marriage was a bit rocky, with a few wild fights and temporary breakups. Ms. Y said Mrs. X had made a series of very strange posts to Facebook about how she thought she had known someone all her life but it turned out she didn’t know them and that this person turned out be some sort of an evil force.

I believe that is a reference to Mr. X, as the”evil force” lines up with the earlier report that she said Mr. X was a “monster.” That Mrs. X had “known him her whole life” simply means that she was married to him for some time, probably over a decade. Marriages often seem to “last a lifetime,” even when they don’t.

So we can see that Mrs. X referred to Mr. X as an enigmatic person who fooled her into thinking he was ok for many years, but she had recently discovered that he was “a monster” and “a force of evil.”

If Mr. X is a psychopath (a possibility), then this report lines up perfectly. Bottom line is he would be fooling everyone. Everyone in town would think he was a standup guy, including the grandparents of girl he may have murdered himself. He was married for up to a decade to a wife before she was able to tear down his “mask of sanity.” See Harvey Cleckley, The Mask of Sanity, 1947, the ultimate document ever written on psychopathy. They fool everyone for a long time, but after they have known them for some time, some people can uncover their true personas, which are nothing like their public images. “A force of evil” and “monster” are two terms people often use when they are able to take the mask off of a psychopath.

Mr. X’s Behavior on February 13-14, 2017

Mr. X has an alibi for the murders, that he was elsewhere in another town, when the murders occurred. Someone, possibly a friend, Mr. Z, was certain that they saw him elsewhere when the murders were committed. We don’t know who Mr. Z was. I say was because shockingly, Mr. Z is now dead. So Mr. X’s alibi is dead. That means that the alibi cannot be flipped anymore.

Curiously, Mr. X’s phone pinged the Child Protective Services building for several hours around the time of the murders. LE feels that the killer parked his car at the CPS building. No vehicle has yet been reported parked near the building. It would seem that Mr. X’s phone pinging the CPS building means he or his phone was there at the time, but Mr. X can always say that he was elsewhere, and his phone was at his home pinging there looking for a signal. There are only two cell towers in town so that’s actually a possibility, albeit a remote one.

However, there is a report that an abandoned vehicle, possibly a white truck, was towed from the CPS building. There is currently a gag order imposed by the courts about the circumstances around this truck being towed.

Mr. X’s orange truck was parked hidden in the cemetery directly above where the girls were found. It stayed in this spot for at least the next 18 hours, from 6:30 PM until 12:30 PM the next day when the girls’ bodies were discovered. I say at least because no one knows exactly when Mr. X’s truck was first parked in the cemetery. Yes, it shows up there at 6:30 PM, but perhaps it had been parked there earlier without being seen.

Mr. X is also one of three people who discovered the bodies. Hence, Mr. X’s DNA is all around the crime scene as a discoverer of the crime. None of this DNA is usable in court. After he found the girls, Mr. X said called his wife and ran from the scene. Later he needed months of psychotherapy due to the trauma he experienced by discovering the bodies. To me those two reactions seem pretty excessive, but that doesn’t prove anything. At 12:30 PM, the cemetery was filling up with police cars. Mr. X’s truck was in the way and was blocking in police cars.

This is apparently a photo of Mr. X’s truck at 1 PM on February 14. On the left side, you can see the truck where it was hidden at the cemetery. On the left, you can see where his truck is blocking police cars.

Asked why he was parked there and if he would please move his truck, Mr. X stated that he had lost his car keys and he was going to call his wife to get her to bring a new set.

Three problems with that story.

Mr. X never lost his keys. They were in his pocket the whole time. He never called his wife to bring a spare set. Even worse, there was no spare set. Mr. X was later caught by LE in this lie about losing his car keys, and this is one of the things that provoked their interest in him. A tow truck came and Mr. X allowed his truck to be towed. He had to do this because he had to keep pretending that he had lost his keys, and obviously his wife had never shown up to bring a new one. No one knows what was in Mr. X’s truck at the time it was towed, and there’s no evidence that it was searched that day by LE.

I noted above that Mr. X’s truck was parked right above where the bodies were found for 18 hours starting at 6:30 PM February 13 until 12:30 PM February 14. For some time after 6:30 PM, Mr. X was presumably searching Ron Logan’s land.

Where was Mr. X between 6:30 PM Monday and 12:30 PM Tuesday? Did he stay out there next to his truck all night? Did he ever go home to his wife that night? We don’t knows the answers to those questions. His whereabouts during those 18 hours are a mystery. However, it is quite odd that his truck stayed right above the kill zone for 18 hours straight. What was point of leaving it there? He had his car keys. Why didn’t he drive it home after he finished searching Ron’s land Monday evening? None of this makes sense.

LE’s Investigation of Mr. X So Far

There’s no evidence that LE has ever served a search warrant on Mr. X, though they may have. They have his DNA. He took a lie detector test but the results were inconclusive. Mr. X has so far been cooperative with LE.

Mr. X Was Present at the 2019 Delphi Murders Town Hall Meeting

Mr. X was present at the 2019 press conference, sitting in the exact center of the room. He was wearing a hunting hat identical to BG’s hunting cap. LE was angry that BG was in the room. This is why Detective Carter was so livid. It’s also why Carter said, “The killer may be in this room right now.” However, he then looked away from Mr. X far to the right.

About That Fake Press Conference or Fakeference

Leaker said that the entire press conference was a gigantic ruse meant to trip up Mr. X, who, as noted, was in the room. The second sketch, which LE said was actually the real killer, was the catfish used to lure Libby off Snapchat.

According to Leaker, the idea that LE thinks this is the subject is a ruse. Instead, this the catfish of a 19 year old boy that was used to catfish Libby on Snapchat. Libby was reportedly falling for this young man pretty hard. Libby showed one of her friends the catfish’s photo on her Snapchat. Based on that recollection, this sketch was created. Once again, this is not BG, the main suspect. BG is a man

The first sketch looks like Mr. X. They did this to make Mr. X think they had abandoned him and were looking at a false suspect.

The statement that they were looking for a young man aged 18-40 was also a lie, intended to make Mr. X think that they had lost his tail and were going off on a false tangent. Likewise with the report of the white truck at the CPS building. They highlighted this to make Mr. X think they were after the wrong vehicle and had abandoned the theory that his orange truck was involved. I have no idea what the cryptic references to The Shack movie were all about. You tell me.

These LE guys are extremely smart and crafty. I have nothing but intense admiration for all of the detectives working on this case. I tire of all the silly repetitious condemnations of LE that they had blown it on this case. I see no evidence that this is true. Instead these guys are master craftsmen straight out of a Sherlock Holmes or John Buchan novel. They continue to amaze me.

Tobe Lozenby and Kelsi German Cleared in Delphi Murders

Via Leaker, several people came back with inconclusive lie detector results, including Sheriff Tobe Lozenby, who was actually a suspect for a while. Tobe has been cleared. The only DNA found at the crime scene on the girls’ bodies was Libby’s sister Kelsi’s. But Kelsi had lent Libby her sweater that day. Kelsi was looked at very closely by the FBI, but she was eventually cleared. Kelsi’s is the only DNA on the girls and presumably on the other objects at the scene. The killer appears to have thrown bleach over both girls and over all of the objects at the scene. There is an old rumor that he threw bleach over the girls’ genital regions that fits in with the new info about a bleach bottle left at the scene.

Brand New Information on Mr. X, the Prime Suspect!

This information comes from a retired LE officer in Illinois. We know him and we set him to work on Mr. X to see what he could dig up for us. He still has many LE contacts and he got in touch with them. After talking to his LE colleagues for a while, he got back to us.

He told us that Mr. X had a roommate in 2011-2012. This roommate looked at the BG video. He said that BG’s voice matched Mr. X’s perfectly. He said that BG’s clothes looked familiar, that is, looked like clothes that Mr. X liked to wear. And he said that the way BG walked was a dead on perfect match for BG’s walk. The roommate also said that he felt that Mr. X might have committed the Evansdale murders too. More on that later. The roommate reported his concerns to the Delphi hotline. This lines up with the Indiana Star article that also discussed Mr. X as a prime Delphi suspect and explored the possibility of a link between Delphi and Evansdale. So we have two sources for the roommate story.

We did a lot of sleuthing on Mr. X and learned that he was homeless for a time in the 2000’s when he was living in a shelter. There were some photos of him from that time but we can’t find them now. We can’t find much on him from before 2000 but he was in Illinois.

We also learned, which ought to be no surprise, that Mr. X had a rap sheet for a sex crime committed during the 1980’s when he was between 16 and 26 years old. Problem is we don’t know the nature of the sex crime. If Mr. X is BG, it makes perfect sense that he has a rap sheet for a sex crime. It also makes perfect sense that Delphi was not his first rodeo. What man with a clear rap sheet and no sex crimes in his background wakes up at age 51 and decides to commit a pair of sexual homicides?

Basically never happens. All these guys have a background. It’s true that some of these men commit a crime like this as young adults and then go on to live normal lives and never commit another homicide. A few cases recently have been solved by DNA of sex murders of young women committed by young men who then went on to live perfectly normal lives, marrying and raising kids, until they were caught by DNA in their 60’s and 70’s. For everyone saying Mr. X could not possibly have done it, the people who knew these men when they were arrested recently said the same thing.

The Evansdale Murders – Some Background

The Evansdale Murders are the double murders of two very young girls in Evansdale, Iowa, in 2012. They were younger than the teenage victims in this case, both below age 11. These were literally little girls. I don’t have time to go into the Evansdale Murders now. I recommend you look it up on the Net if you want some background.

A fellow sleuth read an article in a local newspaper a few years ago, but she can no longer find the article among her extensive files. I realize this is not a good source, but I do trust and believe her. She thought the paper was the Indiana Star. The article looked into the possibility that the Delphi Killer was responsible for the Evansdale Murders too. The article focused on Mr. X but did not name him, instead referring to him losing his keys during the search. The article implied that he was a prime suspect. The story noted that the suspect vehicle in the Delphi Murders was a white van. It was parked at the trailhead.

The girls were riding bicycles when they were accosted by the killer near the trailhead. Their bikes were strewn across the bike path. He had somehow removed them from their bikes and gotten them into his van. The van is the suspect vehicle because it was seen at the trailhead just before the girls vanished.

Five months later, the girls’ bodies were found in a wooded area near water six miles away at a wildlife refuge. The bodies were in very bad shape, and the cause of death could not be ascertained.

One of the girls’ parents was heavily involved in meth, manufacturing it and selling large quantities. He was arrested and sent to jail after the girls were killed. A drug connection appears to be ruled out.

The FBI for some odd reason felt that the girls had been left alive for a week after they were abducted. If this is so, they were probably being raped and possibly beaten or tortured during this time. What a chilling thought.

According to the article, Mr. X was driving a white van right around the time of the Evansdale Murders. Furthermore, a white van had been seen cruising the streets of Evansdale for a few weeks before the murders. It was not seen again after the girls were abducted.

Mr. M., A Previous Prime Suspect in the Evansdale Murders

I previously had another prime suspect for the Evansdale Murders who I will not name other than calling him Mr. M. His ex-wife, Mrs. S., is convinced that he killed those girls. She has since remarried and moved to Arkansas. I’ve spoken with her at length, and I like her a lot. I’ve also spoken with the Iowa lead detective on the Evansdale case. Mr. M is a pure pedophile. His Facebook page is full of photos of little girls. They’re crawling all over the page. According to Mrs. S., Mr. M dressed his two sons up in girls’ clothes and molested them for five years. He was never arrested for this abuse.

Another woman from Iowa who worked with Mrs. S., Ms. C., told me she and Mrs. S thought this man was a member of a network of pedophiles or possibly or sadistic pedophiles. Sadistic pedophiles are 5% of all pedophiles. They are called misophiles. Most sexual murders of children are committed by misophiles. As with sadistic rapists, 5% of all rapists, misophiles are quite dangerous. Most rapists who murder are sadistic rapists. Anger rapists sometimes kill in a rage if the victim fights back, but generally they just threaten or possibly hurt the rape victim without killing her.

Ms. C told me that in these misophile networks, the ultimate high is considered to be to be get two little girls at once and rape, torture, and murder them. That is just horrible.

This would be akin to the “double cherry” murders that some US soldiers committed in the Vietnam War. The soldiers would abduct a virgin teenage girl from presumably a hostile village, rape her, and then murder her. That’s terrible. It really hits me hard.

Mr. M has been investigated by the FBI six different times for the Evansdale Murders. Each time they describe him as a suspect. They clear him each time after a while, and then they simply say that he is not a suspect. I was sure that Mr. M. killed those girls, as his behavior around that time was very suspicious, but now I am not so sure. The FBI is said to be very angry at me for my articles on Mr. M, who I simply referred to as Mr. X, because they think it will harm his ability to get a fair trial. I doubt if he did it, but maybe I will take those articles down if they’re making the FBI mad.

LE Now Feels that BG Also Committed the Evansdale Murders

The shocking news that we learned from our retired LE contact was that LE now thinks that the Delphi Murders and the Evansdale Murders are linked. The state in which the bodies were left and the choice of dump sites were the same in both killings, and strange objects were found with the Evansdale girls similar to the weird objects found with the Delphi victims.

In addition to Mr. M above, another man was a suspect in the Evansdale Murders. He had abducted two girls, one 12 and the other 15 years old and taken them to a barn where he had tied to them up. While he was raping and killing the 15 year old girl, the 12 year old girl escaped. The poor 15 year old girl did not, and her body was found dumped nearby shortly afterwards. Unfortunately he killed himself before he could be taken to trial.

For a long time, LE thought his man did the Evansdale murders. After all, two female minors were abducted at once in both crimes and were either killed or there was an attempt made to kill both of them. However, LE said that this man’s MO was completely different from the MO used in the Evansdale murders, so he probably didn’t do it.

Lists have been made of all of the similarities between the Evansdale Murders and the Delphi Murders. The coincidences are shocking. The dates of the Evansdale and Delphi Murders are exactly reversed. Also both sets of girls were killed on the 13th, traditionally an unlucky number and day.

If LE suspects Mr. X of both crimes, this means that he was living in Delphi at the time of the Delphi murders, moving away only recently. He lived in Delphi most of the last decade. Around 2011-2102 was when he first moved to Delphi. Prior to that he had been bouncing around small towns in Indiana. At this time, he had a male roommate who suspects Mr. X in not only the Delphi murders but also the Evansdale Murders. If Mr. X killed the Evansdale girls, he was living in or around Delphi at the time. It would have been a long-distance murder. So Mr. X would have lived in Delphi when he committed both the Evansdale and Delphi Murders.

BG May Well Be a Serial Killer

It is important to note that if BG also committed the Evansdale Murders, he is a serial killer. I have felt from the start that BG might be a serial. The crime was too brazen and skillfully carried out to be a first shot. And who wakes up at age 51 and decides to commit horrible sex murders? Pretty much nobody. He would have been 46 when he did the Evansdale Murders, but he may have committed a sex crime between the ages of 16-26, so there’s your prior earlier in life. Almost all of these guys have red flags like this early ion life.

Mr. X May Have an Aberrant Age Sexual Orientation

I hate to bring up this subject since it sets off so many lies about me, but I’m forced to because Mr. X may have an aberrant age sexual orientation and this has forensic consequences. First a brief tutorial on age orientations in men.

Sexual orientation is not just towards sex as in homosexual, bisexual, and heterosexual.

Males have three main age orientations:

Teleiophile: Maximally attracted to mature females 16+. All normal males fall into this category. The react to 13-15 year old girls too, but at a lower level. And 90-100% of them react to even girls from 7-12, albeit at a substantially lower level. The presence of attractions is not what is important here. The importance lies in the degree of the attractions relative to other ages. Depending on the definition, 23% of teleiophilic men also show strong attraction to girls under 16. However, as they have strong attractions to mature females also, we tend not to worry about these men. There are too many of them anyway.

Some teleiophilic killers go as low as 12 as Bundy did, but that is because 12 year old girls are barely starting to look like women, especially with the abnormally long legs. These killers almost never commit sex murders of little girls. Or if they do, they do it when they are boys. For instance, Bundy killed an 8 year old girl when he was 14. But that’s a fairly normal attraction for a 14 year old boy to have.

Hebephile: Although age ranges vary, I prefer the age range of 12-15 for hebephiles. Some move the lower end down a bit. These men are maximally attracted to pubescent girls and have little to no attraction to mature females. Perhaps

3% of men are primary hebephiles. Hebephilia is not considered to be a mental disorder as attraction to pubescent females is quite normal among teleiophilic men. The Delphi Killer could have been either a hebephile or a teleiophile based on the age of his victims.

23% of men react maximally to girls age 12-15 at a level equal to or higher than their reaction to mature females. So high attraction to girls in this range is quite normal. The thing is that these men are also strongly attracted to adult women. The hebephilic attraction is an antisocial attraction. The attraction to adult women is a prosocial attraction. Probably most of these men repress or suppress their hebephilic urges which will land them in prison if they act on them and instead focus on their prosocial urges towards adult women, which are completely legal.

Hebephilia is a problem when men have little to no attraction to mature females so the only way to satisfy their sexual urges is to have sex with a 12-15 year old girl. That’s illegal in most places, either child molestation in the case of 12 year olds or statutory rape for 13-15 year olds. In quite a few countries, 15 year old girls are legal, so hebephiles may stay out of trouble there. These men are automatically dangerous because the only way to fulfill their sexual drive is to commit a crime.

Pedophilia: Probably the most grotesquely abused word of the 21st Century. Nowadays an 18 year old boy has sex with a 17 year old girl, gets arrested, goes to jail, gets called a pedophile and a child molester, and sees his name go on a sex offender registry for life. This is a result of a huge Sex Panic around the sexuality of teenage girls because we cannot acknowledge that they are fully sexual creatures without falling into a Puritanical moral panic.

As a result of this mass hysteria around the subject, the perfectly legitimate category of statutory rape (I prefer the term illegal intercourse) has been absurdly conflated with the child molestation of little girls under 13, which admittedly is a problem. Stat rape is psychologically normal behavior for adult men. It is a moral and legal problem, not a psychological one. Many adults feel that men who have sex with teenage girls are bad, evil, depraved, immoral, etc.

Because of society’s morals, much of this behavior is illegal. Societies have a right to have any morals they wish to. Stat rape is probably not harmful to teenage girls. But it is dangerous behavior for men to engage in, as you might get caught and go to jail or prison in the midst of an insane moral panic about this subject. Older men who break these laws are idiots and do not get my sympathy.

Anyway, pure pedophilia is an age orientation whereby men are maximally attracted to girls under 13 and have little to no attraction to mature females. Many start losing interest in girls as soon as they hit 13. It is associated by child molestation, but not all pedophiles molest, and many can go 20-30 years without offending. Also, 75% of child molesters are not pedophiles. They are teliophilic men who are just criminals who prey on easy targets. This behavior is associated with other forms of abuse such as psychological, physical, and verbal abuse. It’s just another form of abuse from an abusive man.

On the other hand, strong pedophilic attraction is quite normal in men. It is only abnormal where it is combined with little or no attraction to adult women. 21% of men react to girls under 13 as strongly or stronger than they do to adult women. But only 3% of men are pure pedophiles, so 18% of men have strong attractions to both mature women and little girls. As with the hebephilic attraction above, men who have high attraction to both women and little girls presumably suppress or repress their antisocial pedophilic attraction and focus on their prosocial attraction to adult women. It sounds like a good way to stay out of prison.

Pure pedophiles are automatically dangerous because the only way they can fulfill their sexual urges is by committing the serious crime of child molestation. Pedophilia, a way of thinking or a sexual orientation, is of course completely legal as are all ways of thinking. However, the behavior that can result from this thinking, child molestation, is very much illegal, and rightly so.

Based on the pure forensics, the Evansdale Killer is a pedophilic sex murderer or a misophile. The Delphi Killer is either a hebephilic sex murderer or he has a normal age orientation and is a teliophilic sex killer. The problem is what do we do when a man kills two girls, 8 and 10 and then kills two more girls, 13 and 14. In the first crime, the killer is almost always pedophilic and in the second crime, the man rarely if ever pedophilic.

A solution to this problem lies in the notion of pedohebephilia.

Pedohebephilia: Apparently there is a significant group of men who react maximally to girls under 16 all the way down to little girls, encompassing both pedophilic and hebephilic attractions. They have little to no attraction to mature females or adult women. The available literature suggests that this group is larger than we thought.

Does Mr. X Have an Aberrant Age Attraction?

The answer appears to be yes. If Mr. X killed the Evansdale girls, we have to think again about his sexual age orientation. Many killers with a normal age orientation will kill teenage girls since they look like women. So they kill teenage girls and grown women because they both look like women. Killers of teenage girls do not typically have an abnormal age orientation as it’s perfectly normal for healthy males to be highly aroused by underage teenage girls. The studies are clear on this.

However, killers who commit sexual murders of little girls under 13 are a different breed. This is beyond the pale for even most serial killers. The one murder that Ted Bundy would never confess to was an 8 year old girl he is thought to have killed when he was only 14 years old. Even for Ted Bundy this was considered shameful. Men who kill teenage girls and women almost never commit sexual murders of little girls. Sex murderers of little girls almost always have a strong pedophilic age orientation, although occasionally they attack adults too, as in the killer of Madeline McMurray who murdered a 3 year old girl, probably killed an 8 year old girl in Germany, and raped and brutally beat a 70 year old woman.

Nevertheless, Madeline’s killer is strongly pedophilic, as a large quantity of child porn was found among his possessions. In addition, a number of little girls’ swimsuits were found in his van. Any man possessing such items will always have a strong pedophilic orientation.

I had previously thought that BG had a normal age orientation for the above reasons. However, 13-14 year old girls also fall into the range of hebephiles who are maximally aroused by 12-15 year old girls and feel little to no attraction to mature females.

I spent a bit of time on their forums studying them. They’re disturbing. They don’t post child porn on there, so their forums are clean. In case yiou think it’s weird to go to such forums, half the people in the forum were hebephiles and another half were hebephile haters threatening to kill the hebephiles and have them arrested. So it’s very common for non-hebephiles to be on these forums.

The hebephiles would scream, “No grandmas!” every time someone posted a 16 year old girl. If a man doesn’t think 16 year old girls are disgusting old ladies, he can’t possibly be a hebephile. This is what they are like.

The victims in the Evansdale and Delphi Murders were girls ranging in age from 8-14. The 8 and 10 year old girls fall into the pedophile category, and the 13 and 14 year old victims do fall into the hebephile category. You can see above that there is an age sexual orientation called pedohebephilia. When they were trying to sneak Hebephilia into the DSM-5, regular reference was made to this group.

Pedohebephiles combine both categories. They are maximally attracted to girls under 16 down to little girls and feel little to no attraction to mature females. If Mr. X did the Evansdale Murders, then he may be a pedohebephile in terms of age attraction.

This is more important than you think because age attractions of sex killers are an important part of forensics and especially profiling. Presumably we should look in the background of Mr. X to see evidence of a strong attraction to girls under 16, possibly combined with a low attraction to adult females.

In that case, he may collect child pornography or go to child porn sites. He may have child and teen erotica in his home. He may have shown evidence in his life of an abnormal interest in little girls or young teenage girls. People close to him may have noticed this over time. In fact, Mr. X was the leader of a young people’s Christian group. The ages of the minors in that group are not known. Investigators should be looking for a man with a strong focus on little girls and young teenage girls as preferred sexual objects. This should be an important part of the investigation.

More on the Official Case Document(s) I Obtained

I am keeping the number, nature, and provenance of the document(s) deliberately vague as I am trying to protect the source who mailed them to me as photocopies. As I discussed in my last update, I recently came upon photocopies one or more official document(s) relating to the case. The document(s) are from either LE or the judicial system or both at the same time. They are signed by two different entities. The document(s) are the property of a man in the community who was investigated as a suspect in this case and relate to LE’s investigation of him. He was cleared of involvement in the case.

Proof That BG Fired a Gun During the Crime

One of the revelations in those document(s) was that BG fired a gun during this crime. This has been subsequently appended by two new rumors that there was a bullet cartridge found at the site and that LE is looking for an odd gun, a collector’s edition .40 or 10mm, that was used in the crime.

It’s pretty clear that at least one cartridge was probably found at the scene because in the document(s), it says that LE is looking for a gun in connection with this crime in order to do ballistics tests on it. In order to do ballistics tests, you need a spent cartridge fired from the gun in question. That can only mean that BG fired a gun at some point in this crime.

The rumor that the gun was a collector’s edition .40 is definitely unconfirmed. I don’t even know the provenance of this rumor. See in the comments below though where a commenter casts doubt on the notion of any .40 gun being a collector’s edition.

Crime Scene Photos from the Helicopter Now Proven Legitimate

In my last post, I ran a number of photos taken from the helicopter footage on February 14, 2017 when the girls’ bodies were discovered. We focused on the area where you can see all the camera flashes going off in a circle. That has to be the crime scene with CSI people photographing the scene. There are a couple of reddish objects that can be very vaguely seen in the center of those camera flashes.

The photos were blown up and manipulated with software in a Youtube video by a theoretical physicist who seems credible. Many people say there is nothing there but pixellation and artifacts. However, I now have reason to believe that my analysis of these photos is correct. In order to discuss this, unfortunately I am going to have to print those photos again.

Outlines of both victims circled. Abby in green and Libby in blue.

First pic above. Both Abby and Libby.

I could not see Abby’s body for a long time, but I can see it here circled in green. Her arms and legs are spreadeagled. Poor thing!

Second pic above. Libby alone.

Enhanced, Libby on the left, Abby on the right. The figures show up better in this photo.

Third pic above. Both girls, good quality image. Note the knife on or near Libby’s shoulder in green.

Right leg, left leg of Libby.

Libby’s legs highlighted above.

One of the things I pointed out in these images is that the killer spread both of the girls’ legs wide open after disrobing them below the waist. This is obviously a sexual position that females adopt when on their backs in order to be penetrated by males via PIV sex. It’s also quite violating considering the ages of these girls and what was done to them.

However, see below how I was able to validate that those are indeed crime scene photos above and that the girls legs were both spread and a knife was either plunged into poor Libby’s shoulder or the log next to her.

A Woman Member of the Search Team Who Came upon the Scene Afterwards Speaks

I recent talked to a woman who was part of the search team. She came upon the site after the girls had been found. What she told me, if validated, is one of the most bizarre and insane double murders of the 21st century.

First of all, we need to look at the credibility of this woman as a source. She was sent to me by a sleuther who I consider to be among the finest and most professional of all. This person told me that he found this woman to be very credible. She wasn’t the sort of person to make things up – more like the opposite.

There are references below to an elaborate crime scene with posing of the girls and all sorts of crazy and unlikely objects scattered about. First of all, I’ve been hearing these rumors forever, and I’ve been laughing as hard as anyone. I thought they were ridiculous. But now here I have a credible witness, a female member of the search team, who told me about this weird crime scene, and it turns out a lot of the crazy stuff I’ve been laughing at all this time may well be true.

A question has been brought up about how would BG transport these various objects to the crime scene, as they could easily been seen on his person in the photo on the bridge. I concur. The searcher is clear that one object was so large that he could have been carrying it when he was photographed on the bridge. I don’t believe he brought any of this stuff (other than the bleach bottle that can be seen in his left pant leg) to the crime scene when he abducted those girls.

Instead I believe he either prepared the crime scene in advance with all this weird stuff scattered about or he came back after the murders and created his little Fantasyland murder scene.

We spent so much time wondering what this object was. I eventually decided it was a net fishing bag that’s used to store fishing knives. However, one of my sleuths kept insisting that it looked like a bottle of toilet bowl cleaner. That’s exactly what it looks like. Now that it appears that a bleach was used and left at the scene, this may be a photo of that very bleach bottle.

Girls Staged in a Sexual Tableau at the Crime Scene

She told me that both girls’ legs were spread. However, she had not yet seen these crime scene photos. Also, I had not talked to her before I ran those photos and determined that the girls’ legs were spread (see photos above). What is the likelihood that she made up a lie about the girls’ legs being spread at the same time as I found some crime scene photos that I interpreted as the girls’ legs being spread? About 0%. So I consider it proven now that BG disrobed both girls below the waist and then spread their legs wide in a sexual tableau imitating PIV sex.

Staging of a Knife Attack on a Girl Made to Appear Self-Inflicted

She said that Libby’s head was leaning against a log. A knife had been plunged either into her shoulder or on the log next to her shoulder. Libby’s hand was positioned to make her appear to be holding the knife that stabbed her in the shoulder. So Libby was posed inflicting a self-inflicted wound upon herself.

As you can see in the photo above, the object highlighted in green is obviously a knife. Once again, what are the odds that she made up a lie about a knife positioned just this way at the same time as I saw these photos and interpreted them as being of a knife positioned just this way? About zero. At this point, I consider it proven that BG plunged a knife into or near Libby’s shoulder.

Spreading their legs in that sexually receptive pose was bad enough, but BG did worse than that. According to this woman, BG had stripped both girls below the waist and had positioned phallic shaped objects between their legs perpendicular to their crotches. He placed a doll between poor Abby’s legs to make it appear she was being penetrated by a doll. Worse, he positioned a log in between poor Libby’s legs, making it appear that she was being penetrated with a log!

This would not be the first time women have been posed like this. I had the misfortune of seeing crime scene photos from the Hillside Strangler case. A dead woman is positioned in a bathtub, and a broom handle of an intact broom is shoved into her vagina.

But wait. Just when you thought things couldn’t get any worse, they do just that. Kind of like, you know, life itself?

Dolls Hanging from Trees at the Crime Scene!

Apparently the doll rumor is true!

The woman told me that dolls were scattered about at the scene in addition to the one shoved between Abby’s legs. Other dolls were, incredibly enough, hanging from the trees at the kill zone!

Giant Plush Stuffed Bear Toy at the Crime Scene? Who Knows? Maybe?

You’re heard the rumor of the gigantic stuffed animal left at the scene? That rumor was so pathetic that I discounted it immediately as ridiculous. Well, guess what? The woman told me that a large toy-like object was left at the scene. She didn’t tell me what it was, but she did say it was so large that BG could not possibly have smuggled it to the scene when he abducted the girls because it would have been seen in the video.

Here is the supposed giant plush object, supposedly a huge toy bear . I finally did see the gigantic plush bear when I looked at the physicist’s video again. However, the idea of a lifesize plush bear is so insane that I am going to call this an optical illusion via pixellization until I can get another source to verify this insane story to me, although my search party source did say that a large object (she suggested some sort of toy) was left at the scene that was so large that he could not have carried it to the crime scene that day without it being seen on the photo on the bridge.

Smiley Face Killers Signature at the Crime Scene

There was also a large white sheet left at the scene with a smiley face scrawled on it. According to the theoretical physicist, he seemed to be saying that this smiley face sheet had been hung from trees. This crime scene is getting seriously nuts.

Remember the bizarre Smiley Face Murders, the possible drownings of severely intoxicated young adult college age men in the Eastern US over a period of 10-20 years? No one knows if these are actual murders or just accidental drownings, but there are a couple of retired crack detectives who are certain that these are homicides, albeit very cleverly disguised ones. I believe that these are homicides.

They are called the Smiley Face Murders because in many cases, smiley faces were seen drawn on bridges where the drowned bodies were found. It is thought that these drunken young men may have been tossed off of bridges. The other theory of course is that these are simply college aged men who drunk to severe intoxication before deciding to go for a fatal midnight swims. This has been the default interpretation of these murders. Assuming these really are murders, this person(s) may have invented the perfect crime: homicides designed as accidents.

Multiple Signatures

This brings up another theory. One of my sleuther friends suggested that the killer is a serial killer fan. Possibly he is mixing up signatures of different killers in order to throw people off. That may or may not be the case.

Objects staged to appear to be shoved inside female victims’ vaginas would be an imitation of the Hillside Stranglers’ signatures. I’ve heard other killers used this signature, including a child killer in Indiana who was executed just last year who had rammed an object inside the vagina of a little girl he killed.

The smiley face cloth appears to be a reference to the Smiley Face Murders, a mystery involving many mysterious deaths that may be either accidents or homicides staged as accidents.

I don’t know of any serials who have used dolls in staging their crimes, but I suppose they may exist.

On the other hand, and I think this is a better theory, I think that at least some of these things are signatures particular to this killer. I say this because similar posing and objects were reported with the Evansdale Murders, who LE now suspects BG of committing.

Photo of Possible Bleach Bottle in BG’s Left Pant Leg

Another crazy rumor, that of a bleach bottle left at the scene, was also validated by the woman. In the photos below, you can see what may be the bleach bottle in his left jeans pocket.

Here’s that strange object in BG’s pant leg. If that’s not a bottle of toilet bowl cleaner, what in the Hell is it?

It looks like he tossed bleach all over everything – the girls, the dolls, the plush object, the sheet, the crucifix, the log, you name it. Thereby killing all of the DNA.

A closeup of the possible bleach bottle in BG’s pocket. Not a bleach bottle? Then what the Hell is it? Ignore the object circled in red.

DNA, SHMEE-ENAY, Give It a Rest Already

I get tired of all this endless talk of DNA. Assuming that Mr. X is the prime suspect, they already have his DNA. It’s all over the crime scene in the surrounding forest but it’s not on the girls or on any of the objects, probably because the threw bleach all over them.

I do have an unverified report that they have nine markers of a DNA profile via skin cells from an unknown male recovered from one of the girls. Problem is that’s not many markers. It’s known as a partial DNA sample. I don’t have the exact figures, but a match with Mr. X on those nine markers might mean that there’s a 1 in 10 chance it’s him. In other words, 10% of men have those markers. They can’t use that in court, but these partial matches are useful to LE because they give LE additional confidence that they have the right suspect.

Fingerprint Evidence

Reportedly, LE has one smudged fingerprint from the crime scene. No one knows who it might be from. It doesn’t sound like it’s very usable.

The Crime Scene Had to Have Been Set up Before or Afterwards

Obviously, BG picked out this spot in advance and somehow planted the logs, dolls, sheet, plush object, etc. at the scene ahead of time without getting caught. He set up this crime scene before the murders. How did he do it? When? Why was he not seen?

Alternately, BG killed the girls and then went back to the scene between the sometime in the night of February 13 and early morning of February 14 and created this crazy Disneyland crime scene. The same questions posed above apply here too. I’m actually leaning towards the latter, as insane as that sounds. But really, if these crime scene rumors are true, just about anything, including the most insane notions, may be correct about this craziest of crimes.

Keep in mind that none of the wild stories above from the woman searcher are confirmed yet as they comes from a single, albeit seemingly unimpeachable, source. But we need more than that to confirm rumors in this case.* Nevertheless, the continuous nature of these bizarre rumors, now backed up by an excellent eyewitness, does add some credibility to these insane rumors.

If this crime scene is anything like what this woman describes it as, then this is shaping up to be one of the weirdest, most insane double homicides of the 21st Century.

*Notice that I am getting stricter about my criteria for confirmation of rumors in this case. We played fast and loose with words and phrases like confirmed, true, solid proof, etc. in this past. Once bitten, twice shy when it comes to that.

Cannabis: A plant with enigmatic origins

In recent years, in several regions of the world, there has been a revaluation of the medicinal and food properties of Cannabis, as well as of its use as a raw material in the industrial sectors (textiles, construction, paper, energy, etc.), teaches about better eco-sustainability compared to the “traditional” oil and deforestation industries.

Hemp is not a new plant, and has been present in Italy for at least 13,500 years.

Cannabis: A plant with enigmatic origins

The chronological and geographical origins of the human relationship with hemp are still shrouded in mystery a problem in line with that axiom of ethnobotany that is based on the observation that the more ancient the relationship of man with a plant, the more complex the identification of the origins and genesis of this relationship becomes.

In addition to the great antiquity, the question is complicated by the problem of speciation within the genus Cannabis, in particular the distinction or not between Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica, which is generally made to correspond with the distinction between hemp from fiber and psychoactive hemp. In 2005, genetic studies showed how the genus Cannabis is derived from three main genetic poles, and for this reason the two species C. sativa and C. indica should be kept distinct, with the addition of a third species, C. Ruderalis ( Hillig, 2005).

As far as the center of origin of the Cannabis species is concerned, there is a general tendency to recognize an Asian origin, either eastern or more recently Western, Central Asian, ie the Chinese region of Xinjang or northern India. There are those who believe that C. indica originated in Afghanistan and spread later to China, Japan, Africa and South-East Asia, whereas C. sativa would have originated in Central Asia and subsequently spread in Europe (Hillig, 2005). However, genetic studies of 2500 year-old hemp samples found in the Chinese Xinjang region have shown a Euro-Siberian origin of C. sativa, with a subsequent migration to the east (Mukherjee et al., 2008).

Hemp in the Italic millennia

That hemp was present in Europe in the wild for a long time before man began to cultivate it, was confirmed by the polynimetrical studies from the taking of rock samples from the subsoil, and the oldest data, have, so far, come to light precisely in Italy: in the Lake of Albano (Rome), 11.500 BC, and in the coastal depths of the central Adriatic Sea, with the first dating to 11,000 BC, follows the date of 9000 BC of the large lake of Monticchio (Potenza) and that of 6800 BC in the region of Lake Nemi (Rome).

So hemp has been present in Italy for at least 13500 years, and this to the detriment of those who are still convinced that this plant was brought by man from Asia to Europe in later periods.

For the following periods, there are findings of hemp pollen in the Neolithic in mostly anthropic contexts, indicating a probable cultivation of the plant. This is the case of the recent discovery of hemp in three sites of the Middle Neolithic (4500-4000 BC) of the Emilia Romagna region, located in the areas currently occupied by the urban centers of Piacenza, Parma and Forlì, while in the Lombardia region its presence is witnessed starting from 5000 BC near the lakes of Annone (Lecco) and Aleserio (Como).

An interesting fact concerns a Punic war ship wrecked in Sicily where the Isola Lunga (Long Island), along the coast between the cities of Marsala and Trapani, dated no later than the first half of the 2nd century BC, and among whose remains two baskets containing hemp have been found. The two baskets were found where the kitchen was supposed to be, and the context has led to the hypothesis that hemp was used as a psychoactive source by the sailors of the ship. It would be one of the rare European clues to an ancient knowledge and use of hemp for intoxicating purposes.

A further significant fact, of iconographic nature, concerns a vase of ceramic found in an Etruscan tomb in Cerveteri , 7th century BC. The vase is decorated with scenes depicting the Greek myth of the Argonauts carrying a long sail in the act of embarking it on the ship. On one side of the sail is the inscription kanna, which has been interpreted as an Etruscan transliteration of the Greek word kannabis, ie hemp. The singularity of the finding lies in the fact that it anticipates by two centuries the most ancient European written testimony on hemp, which had always been considered that reported by Herodotus in the passage on the Scythians in the fifth century BC.

The enigma of intoxicating seeds

The distinction between hemp from fiber (“sativa”) and psychoactive hemp (“indica”), the former being poor in THC, responsible for the intoxicating effects of the plant, while both produce non-psychoactive cannabinoids, is well known to modern scholars and hemp users. , in particular, CBD (cannabidiol), which in any case has important pharmacological properties useful in therapy. But of this conscious distinction, there are few, too often meager traces in Eurasian literature and, together with the problem of origins, this is the most enigmatic aspect of the history of hemp.

The most ancient literary documentation attesting an apparent knowledge of the psychoactive properties of hemp seems to be the passage of Herodotus who wrote his Stories around 500 BC and in which the Greek historian reported the use of hemp near the Scythians, in the context of a purification ceremony performed after the burial of a king. According to what was reported by Herodotus, those who intended to purify themselves, would enter a small hut, where a brazier was placed in which hemp seeds were burned, and following this “they sent shouts of joy satisfied by this bath of (steam), because they did not wash the body with water.”

An interesting fact concerns the archaeological confirmation of what was reported by Herodotus. In several Siberian kurgan (mound-shaped tombs) of the Altai region, dated around 500 BC, the remains of these mini huts and braziers, with lots of hemp seeds charred inside them, have actually come to light. But the practice of burning hemp seeds on braziers in funeral contexts could be much older than the Scythian culture, having been found charred hemp seeds in a burial in 2000 BC near Gurbanesti, in Romania.

This practice would involve an anomalous and enigmatic use for intoxicating purposes, given that, to our knowledge hemp seeds, both from sativa and of the indica form, are not psychoactive, as they do not contain THC. It is true that recently some alkaloids have been identified in the seeds with probable therapeutic properties useful in the treatment of neuro-degenerative diseases, but this would not seem to be sufficient to contradict that universally acknowledged anecdotal fact about the total absence of psychoactive effects of seeds, however, these are taken, ingested or inhaling the smoke. (although a member of The Landrace Team became aware of the narcotic and intoxicating effect experienced by an inhabitant of the Hunza valley in the far north of Pakistan, after chewing and ingesting some hemp / cannabis seeds that grow in that area.)

This enigma is not limited to the Scythian practice, for which we suspect the solution lies in a wrong modern interpretation of the “screams of joy” of the passage of Herodotus, considered by all the decisive detail that would demonstrate the intoxicating purpose of such practice, when this could have mere purifying purposes, as indeed reported by the same Greek author this would highlight the forcing that goes against that bad habit of extrapolating in a careless and arbitrary way our modern “knowledge” in the interpretation of ancient practices and “knowledge”.

Observing the ancient treatises in Chinese medical matter, hemp is mentioned starting from the times of the Han Dynasty, in the II century AD, and the medicinal properties are mainly ascribed to seeds and achenes (fruits), and rarely to the inflorescence the latter becomes increasingly rare in medical treatises, until it disappears, and today the Chinese pharmacopoeia recognizes only the semen cannabis sativae for therapeutic use (Wu, 2005). References to the intoxicating properties of hemp are meager.

In a text of the Han Dynasty of the first two centuries AD (Divine Farmer’s Classic of Materia Medica), it is specified that ‘excessive consumption of mafen causes vision of spirits and makes one run frantically. Prolonged consumption frees the light of the spirit and illuminates the body ”. There is still no concordance of interpretation between scholars about the ancient Chinese terminology indicating the various parts of the plant, and the term ma-fen is considered by some to be the fruit, by others the inflorescence of the female plant a difference that is fundamental in identifying the psychoactive potential.

Another passage is present in the Ming-i-pieh-lu of the fifth century AD, where it is reported that “the necromancers use the mafen in combination with ginseng to see the future”. Despite the rarity of references to inebriating properties in texts, this knowledge would be implicit in some compound terms in which the word “hemp” (ma) falls, such as ma-mo (“demon”) and ma-tsui (“narcotic”) ( Li, 1974)

Turning now to ancient European literature, except for the doubtful passage of Herodotus on the Scythians, there is a disconcerting silence of the intoxicating properties of hemp. Greek authors like Dioscorides and Latins like Pliny reported that the seeds of the plant “destroy the sperm”, and that the juice of the plant causes headaches.

Both authors distinguished two types of hemp, one that was wild and the other cultivated, but the one called “wild” or “native of the woods” referred to a different plant, the Althea cannabina L. from this it can only be deduced that Greeks and Romans did not know intoxicating hemp (as suggested by Brunner 1977).

Several authors recognized the psychoactive hemp in Gelotophyllis, the plant that “makes people laugh” that grew in Bactria, in present-day Afghanistan, cited by Pliny, without however providing convincing evidence. This, however, suggests the possibility that in ancient times psychoactive hemp was not recognized as the same hemp grown for its fiber and that it was therefore subject to a different nomenclature.

Where is the intoxicating hemp?

One wonders: where is the knowledge of the psychoactive properties of this plant? And where is the knowledge of the therapeutic properties of the other parts of the plant, leaves and inflorescences, so widely used today? To the detriment of an apparent absence in written texts, an increasingly conspicuous number of archaeological finds would seem to bear witness to a knowledge of the intoxicating and therapeutic properties of the vegetative parts of hemp, and not only of its seeds.

In China, remains of the plant came to light among the funerary objects of burials of the first millennium BC distributed in the Xinjang area. For example, in a tomb of the Yanghai site of 500 BC, which housed the remains of a probable shaman, a basket and a bowl had been deposited that contained a vegetable cluster, consisting of fruits, leaves and stems of Cannabis.

In another tomb of the same site, dated 60 BC, hemp had curiously been deposited together with significant quantities of caper (Capparis spinosa L.). In the cemetery of Jiayi, also in Xinjiang, above the remains of a man of 35 years of age, dated to 80-400 BC, 13 female hemp plants had been deposited, including roots, but whose inflorescences had been cut a detail that would betray an awareness of the intoxicating properties of these inflorescences, for which it is plausible to hypothesize a consumption by the participants during the funeral rite, as the last “mental” accompaniment of the soul of the deceased in his journey into the afterlife, similarly to the intake of opium or alcohol in the ancient Mediterranean funeral rites. It should be pointed out that the Xinjang burials concerned a human population with Caucasoid physical characteristics, therefore European and non-Eastern (Mair, 1996).

Even among those Shiites who “emanated screams of joy” immersed in the steam bath of hemp seeds, archeology would have revealed a knowledge of the therapeutic properties of the vegetative parts of hemp, in the context of the burial of the “princess of Ukok”, a Scythian-Siberian mummy of a woman found in the Altai, dated around 500 BC Using magnetic resonance tomography analysis, it was discovered that this woman suffered from osteomyelitis since adolescence, and from a right breast cancer with metastasis. In the tomb next to the body a container with hemp was found, and this suggested that it was used to alleviate chronic pain that the woman certainly suffered from (Liesowska, 2014).

A find in the Mediterranean area has come to light in Israel. In a tomb from the 4th century BC the remains of a young 14-year-old girl and a 40-week-old fetus had been deposited at the height of her pelvic region. From the study of the structure of the skeleton it was deduced that the young girl had probably died during childbirth.

Next to the two bodies was found a charred cluster of gray material weighing about 7 grams, and which turned out to be made mainly of Cannabis. The chemical analysis showed the presence of delta-6-tetrahydrocannabinol, one of the secondary active ingredients of Cannabis, but it is also a conversion product of THC and cannabidiol following the plant burning process. Hence the hypothesis that the cannabis leaves, burned in a tray, were administered to the little woman as an inhalant to facilitate delivery (Zlas et al. 1993).

We cite again a finding that highlights the presence of hemp in the European Neolithic, concerning the remains of this plant found in the cave of D ’Adaouste, located in southern France. During the excavations fragments of hemp fiber came to light, several of which still retain a bluish tint, considered not accidental but the result of a deliberate coloring of the vegetable fiber, for which the ford plant was probably used, Isatis tinctoria L . (Brassicaceae family).

An interesting fact concerns the analysis of a residual paste found on an elongated bone that probably served as a spatula. The cluster consisted of various organic animal and vegetable components, including hemp and flax fibers, and French archaeologists deduced that it could have been a medicament, or perhaps a compound with magical-therapeutic properties. It would therefore be a very rare Neolithic evidence of a use of hemp different from its use as a fiber (Cotte & Cotte 1917).

Psychoactive hemp would therefore seem to be present and known in ancient Eurasia, and its almost total absence in written texts is an enigma that remains to be explained an absence that recurs in European medieval and Renaissance texts, where once again importance is given only to seeds. And yet, from a long time before our era, the relations between the Mediterranean and Eastern populations are well attested, including those of the Near East and Arab, and it is no coincidence that we speak of “orientalizing phases” in Greek, Etruscan art, etc.

One wonders how it is possible, for example, that Europeans have acquired modern numeration from the Arabs, precisely called “Arab”, as well as a whole set of important medical concepts, without becoming aware of hemp. Arabic and Persian literature is full of references to psychoactive hemp. Suffice it to mention the Book of the Righteous Wiraz, a Zoroastrian religious text probably from the Sassanid period (III-VII centuries AD) which describes the dreamlike journey of a devotee in the afterlife.

In the text it is specified that, to make the journey, he drinks a drink made from wine with hemp (Piras, 2000). And while we witness the Arab expansion in the Mediterranean starting from the seventh century AD, and to the long phase of the Catholic reconquest of the Iberian peninsula, which ended only in the fifteenth century AD, Europe remains apparently unaware of what was the main heady Arab source , so widely discussed in medieval Islamic texts.

From the Middle Ages to the Renaissance

After the Roman period, the cultivation of hemp from fiber spread to several Italian regions. A first noteworthy development can be observed starting from the 9th century AD: in Sicily, during the Arab domination, despite not having reached the level of intensive production of other textile fibers such as linen and cotton. In the Lazio region, during the late Middle Ages each peasant family received in assignment, in addition to the house and vegetable garden, a plot destined for the cultivation of hemp, sufficient for the textile needs of the family nucleus.

It seems that there were hemp plots distinct from those reserved for obtaining textile fiber, perhaps for the production of seeds, which were used for the sowing of the following year and as food, to prepare soups and decoctions. In the Piemonte region, intensive hempaculture has been recorded since the 13th century, and most of the harvest was intended to supply the ships of the maritime republics of Genoa and Venice with ropes and sails.

As far as the Emilia-Romagna region is concerned, although a cultivation of hemp has already been recorded since the late Middle Ages, its widespread diffusion occurred only from the fifteenth century an intensive industry that will no longer stop, to the point of making the region, together with the regions of Piemonte and Lombardia, the second largest producer of textile hemp in the world, second only to Russia.

In conjunction with the beginning of intensive cultivation in the fifteenth century, in the Emilia-Romagna region there is a significant increase in the breeding of pigeons. The hypothesis was suggested that pigeon cultivation was the answer to the increased demand for guano to fertilize the hemp fields.

At the moment we have identified only a couple of references to the intoxicating properties of the cannabis leaves: first in the Book of nature and virtue of the things they nourish (1576) written by Giovanni Savonarola, who in addition to considering again the heady hemp seed as coriander , he added that the dry leaves of cannabis mixed with wet flour to make pasta and be eaten, generated a drunkenness and a certain stupidity to those who tasted them.

The second reference is present in the text by Girolamo Cardano, De subtilitate rerum, published in 1550, where he writes about the intoxicating effect of hemp leaves. These are just a few references, but they would seem to indicate the presence or at least the knowledge of psychoactive hemp in Europe during the Renaissance. In our opinion, all this simply suggests that the history of intoxicating hemp in Europe and in Italy in the past millennia is still almost entirely to be discovered and written.

But what about the martyrs?

Doubters will scoff that the Romans couldn’t have created and nurtured Christianity while they were simultaneously doing their best to stamp it out. A more extensive response to this question will be forthcoming, but meanwhile I would like to make the following observations:

1. Up until Constantine’s edicts, all forms of Christianity were equally forbidden from a Roman legalistic perspective. However, in addition to the Roman Catholic form, there were many other nominally Christian sects, including Gnostic sects, as well as (quite possibly) genuinely Messianic Jewish sects. In many martyrdom narratives, it can be difficult or impossible to tell whether the victim was an orthodox Roman Catholic, or a follower of some more zealous sect.

2. Modern scholars have found that the scale of martyrdom has often been overestimated. For a discussion, see Candida Moss’s The Myth of Persecution.[xxi]

3. Many of the ‘Christian’ martyrs were Jewish zealots. For example, Atwill shows in Caesar’s Messiah that the martyrdom of Simon ‘predicted’ by Jesus in John 21 actually foresaw the execution of the zealot leader Simon in 73 CE. Rome had, in effect, used its martyrdom of the zealots as part of its pseudo-history of Roman Christianity.

Conclusion: A Love Letter to Colonialism

Which brings us at last to the conclusion: Assassin’s Creed: Valhalla is a well-designed game it is also a deeply irresponsible game. Let’s recap here: this is a game where the Norse and Danish, in possession of a superior culture and unencumbered by effete Christian morality take root in a new, populated land by force and immediately proceed, by virtue of their superiority, to begin ‘improving’ the locals. This is, without exaggeration, exactly the vision that historical colonialists presented of their brutal imperial regimes and it differs from the actual, historically traumatic experience of the 9th century invasions in exactly the same ways as more modern experiences of colonialism (that is to say, it is just as sanitized and exactly as sanitized as what you would have gotten if you asked the British Home Office how things were going in, say, Jamaica, in 1750 or India in 1900).

This would be, by all accounts, bad enough. Constructing sanitized, a-historical defenses for colonialism is – and I hope everyone is here with me – quite bad. And to be clear, this isn’t an issue of ‘acknowledging the complexities’ of colonial interactions (the ‘Romans were nasty, but they did bring aqueducts’ school of thought), because the game has systematically cleansed the setting of the actual facts of Norse and Danish colonization in this period: much of the violence, the slavery, the destruction of infrastructure, the slavery, the theft of land and resources, and the slavery (to name just a few). The game never presents the situation Eivor is in as ‘salvaging the best of a bad situation’ – rather the arrival of the Danes and Norse is repeatedly presented as an unmitigated good to the Saxons.

But, as I just implied two paragraphs ago, I think there is an extra layer of irresponsibility here. Any historian who works on this period will tell you – and I know mostly because they keep telling me – that pre-Christian ‘viking’ (read: Scandinavian) imagery and history is routinely mobilized by the modern incarnations of white supremacist and frankly Nazi ideologies. Scandinavian runic writing, the Scandinavian ‘cross of Odin,’ and even the under-cut hairstyle often associated (falsely, by the by, even though TV shows keep using it) with ‘vikings’ have all been appropriated by racist extremists as symbols of their movement.

Now, am I saying that this means we all need to abandon these symbols to the Neo-Nazis? No. But clearly any game set in this historical period ought to tread very carefully, because this is difficult ground. And certainly, a game that openly brags at the outset that it has, “a multicultural team of various beliefs, sexual orientations and gender identities” ought to be on its guard to make sure that the themes and tone of the setting were crafted with care to avoid accidentally swerving into unfortunate implications.

But Valhalla does more than just swerve a little. In its effort to avoid troubling the player with any of the ugliness of – and I must stress this again – the viking invasion of England – the game’s first 30-40 hours, as they stand, are essentially Nazi race-ideology apologia, even down to replicating the hierarchies of Aryan race theory (with the Germans and ‘Nordics’ on top but the Anglo-Saxons lower but by no means near the bottom), complete with its views on religion (Norse mysticism ‘good,’ Christianity ‘bad’) and – by virtue of the period and setting – much of its iconography.

Now, do I think that the developers set out to create a sanitized defense of colonialism (much less an apologia for Nazi race ideology)? Of course not. But they ended up doing it anyway.

I don’t know if the design and story decisions here were original to the development team or if they came from corporate (what we know about Ubisoft makes me think the latter is much more likely), but it’s not hard to see the decisions that led to this point. Having Eivor or Sigurd engaged in slave raiding would have been too alienating, so it was taken out. Having the main character even potentially war-crime-ing their way across England might enrage the censors, so that has to go. But of course each of these changes cuts in the same direction, until the whole project is so slanted that it falls over.

And it is hard not to come away with the feeling that our “multicultural team” simply did not have their Unfortunate Implications Radar up when it came to colonialism perpetrated against white people (even though white people can absolutely be victims of imperialism or colonialism – ask the Irish, or the Poles, or the Ukrainians) or with the sharply negative depiction of a world religion when it was Christianity (even though Christians can absolutely be the victims of religious persecution – ask the Coptic Christians, or Chinese Christians). And even then, I think the fact that this failure causes the game to run the risk of becoming a cultural tool of white supremacists speaks to the degree that, if we are to condemn something anywhere, we must condemn it everywhere.

Does all of that matter? Yes, I think it does. As I have argued here many times, fiction is often how the public conceptualizes the past and that concept of the past shapes the decisions we make in the present. Is one video game going to lead to a return to colonialist thinking? Of course not. But a culture in which such sanitized narratives are common is a culture far more willing to make those decisions these stories matter in the aggregate. And so it is incumbent on designers and developers to construct their stories and their worlds with care, especially when they are set in the very real past.

To be clear, my preference here is not for Ubisoft to have not made this game, my preference here would be for Scandinavian settlement in England to have been presented, warts and all. Especially in these depictions, I would contend that historical accuracy is an absolute defense (there are exceptions to that rule, to be sure, but I don’t think this is one of them) I don’t ask for censorship or prudishness here, but for courage. In this respect, I think the much smaller title, Expeditions: Viking does this quite a bit better. It still puts you in the place of leading a clan of Norse raiders and even makes those characters (most of them) likeable. But it also doesn’t shy away from the society being built on slavery, or the violence of raiding. It is far more honest about the kind of society your character lives in. It even presents you with a choice in the end of focusing more on integration with your neighbors in England or taking a more violent path, as opposed to Valhalla, which pretends that those two routes are effectively the same – that you can improve and integrate with this society by conquering them.

Assassin’s Creed: Valhalla is willing to show the player nudity and gore. It will show, in intense detail, hands and heads being cut off, people being speared. It is perfectly happy to use profane language. But it blushes at showing the player anything like the reality of this historical period and in the process constructs a deceptive apology for colonialism. It is a decently fun, but deeply irresponsible game.

Ubisoft, please: do better. Earn that title card about your diverse team.

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Book chapter What might constitu. more Book chapter

What might constitute early evidence for the evolution of ethics? The report of chimpanzee stone accumulation behavior at four sites in West Africa (Kühl et al., 2016) is a strong candidate for such evidence. The authors hypothesized the behavior qualified as a form of ritualized behavioral display. They suggested several explanatory hypotheses, but found them inadequate and the behavior puzzling and enigmatic. I develop a hypothesis to explain and interpret the behavioral pattern based on positing its behavioral contexts and re-analyzing its relation to the everyday aggression display and other communicative behaviors. It is explained as an ethological ritualization that down-regulates aggression toward the alpha or indirectly toward a scapegoat, and enacts a ritual performance of non-violent resistance to high-ranking male abuse via a set of creative moral behaviors.
This has implications for homologous behaviors descending from the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, ca. 7-12 million years ago, and for hypothesizing stages in the evolution of morality and ethics in human and other species.

This study presents the discovery of at least fifteen ivory, caribou antler and bone portable art. more This study presents the discovery of at least fifteen ivory, caribou antler and bone portable art sculptures from the Palaeo-American Clovis-age Hiscock site in western New York State. The site is known for its 18 or more mastodon skeletons. This is the first identification of ivory and antler portable art sculptures at a Clovis age site in North America. Previously only one Hiscock art object—a sandstone perforated bead—had been reported.

The fifteen (15) artifacts with sculptured zoomorphic figurations are more or less identifiable to species. Depictions include ‘Eagle’, ‘Mammoth’ and ‘Mammoth-Bison combination’, ‘Mastodon’, 'Marten or other Mustelinae', 'Moose', 'Mega-Cat', ‘Goldeneye or Grebe’, ‘Bison’ and two artifacts with 'Dog-like' depictions. Two of the caribou antler artifacts are fashioned as a matched pair, each Y-shaped, of similar size and weight, and each with a zoomorphic figure sculpted on a tip, one sculpture most resembling the head of an 'Eagle', the other, 'Dog-like'. Given these portable art objects, exotic faunal remains, human bones, possible dog sacrifice, 4 ivory sled runners and other evidence, we infer the Hiscock Clovis zone was a mastodon kill ceremonial site, which also had a shaman sledge burial.

Based on the taxon interpretation of the proposed sculptures and other objects of uncommon significance, a tentative reconstruction is proposed for aspects of the cosmological, shamanic, ecological and spiritual worldviews of Clovis peoples at the Hiscock site. The discovery of Hiscock sculptures and reconstructed worldview the sculptures evoke might apply to other Great Lakes/Northeast Clovis peoples or other Clovis peoples in northern North America. Further research at Hiscock and other North American Clovis sites is needed.

A review of neuroscience neuroimaging research on animacy indicates the existence of an Extended . more A review of neuroscience neuroimaging research on animacy indicates the existence of an Extended Animacy Network (ExtAN) distinct from cognitive theory of mind, agency, action representation and social cognition networks. Prior reviews have focused on posterior areas for biomotion. A pattern-analysis of 157 neuroimaging articles indicates this ExtAN has twenty-five nodes, fifteen right hemisphere and ten left, extending from posterior to anterior cortex and across limbic areas. Neural coordinates and functions are provided for each node. In general, the ExtAN activates during perceiving and expressing the salience, value, quality and degree or intensity of life, aliveness and life-energy.

ExtAN functions include: animacy inference and imagining, especially imperatives visual communicative gesture reading, especially live biomotion linguistic animacy attending to motion target intention changing, e.g., predator/prey human biomotion, liveliness, more than non-human perception of biological forms interpersonal dyadic biomotion semantic distinction between living versus non-living, life versus death personal life continuity into the future processing own immediate relationship to life aliveness life-force and existential mortality threat and death anxiety.

The extended animacy network is the neural substrate for the ontological region of life-experience, life-force and the life-concept. Identification and clarification of the ExtAN is essential for developing any future comprehensive philosophical ontology, theology of life, and clarification of its ontological difference from spirituality and religion social and moral and psychological regions. Findings have implications for characterizing the concepts of animacy and life in neuroscience, biology, psychology, religious studies and anthropology of religion, and evolution of culture.

Keywords: Animacy • neuroscience • biomotion • concept of life • ontology • philosophy of life • animism • spirit • spirituality • life-force • élan vital • biology • cognitive science of religion • evolution of culture

This revision includes new mtDNA dating for San in Rito et al (2019) and its inference that Khois. more This revision includes new mtDNA dating for San in Rito et al (2019) and its inference that Khoisan language family originated in southern Africa with later migration into East Africa. I revised the dates, though I have some doubts about the robustness of the overall origin inference. Also the low date for L3 ooA seems contradicted by arrival of sapiens sapiens in Australia 65,000 years ago. Whole genome dates are earlier and more compatible with the archaeology.
Since I have a current project on East Asian/NE Siberian and southern Siberian mtDNA migration pathways leading to Clovis in northeastern US and Canadian Maritimes I added more data on some tribal populations in the Americas.

This is a revision of Supplementary File Table : mtDNA Database for Archaeogenetic-Linguistics-Archaeology-Mythostratigraphy for Harrod (2014) .
200,000 year Chronological List of mtDNA Haplogroups, TMRCAs, Populations with Exemplary Hg Frequency Samples, Languages, Geographic Regions and Proposed Hg and Language Family, Archaeological Site and Mythostratigraphy Correlations.
This is a work constantly being revised as new findings are reported and revisions will be posted periodically. If you use this database for your research please cite iand give James Harrod credit/acknowledgement.

Book chapter What might constitu. more Book chapter

What might constitute early evidence for the evolution of ethics? The report of chimpanzee stone accumulation behavior at four sites in West Africa (Kühl et al., 2016) is a strong candidate for such evidence. The authors hypothesized the behavior qualified as a form of ritualized behavioral display. They suggested several explanatory hypotheses, but found them inadequate and the behavior puzzling and enigmatic. I develop a hypothesis to explain and interpret the behavioral pattern based on positing its behavioral contexts and re-analyzing its relation to the everyday aggression display and other communicative behaviors. It is explained as an ethological ritualization that down-regulates aggression toward the alpha or indirectly toward a scapegoat, and enacts a ritual performance of non-violent resistance to high-ranking male abuse via a set of creative moral behaviors.
This has implications for homologous behaviors descending from the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, ca. 7-12 million years ago, and for hypothesizing stages in the evolution of morality and ethics in human and other species.

This study presents the discovery of at least fifteen ivory, caribou antler and bone portable art. more This study presents the discovery of at least fifteen ivory, caribou antler and bone portable art sculptures from the Palaeo-American Clovis-age Hiscock site in western New York State. The site is known for its 18 or more mastodon skeletons. This is the first identification of ivory and antler portable art sculptures at a Clovis age site in North America. Previously only one Hiscock art object—a sandstone perforated bead—had been reported.

The fifteen (15) artifacts with sculptured zoomorphic figurations are more or less identifiable to species. Depictions include ‘Eagle’, ‘Mammoth’ and ‘Mammoth-Bison combination’, ‘Mastodon’, 'Marten or other Mustelinae', 'Moose', 'Mega-Cat', ‘Goldeneye or Grebe’, ‘Bison’ and two artifacts with 'Dog-like' depictions. Two of the caribou antler artifacts are fashioned as a matched pair, each Y-shaped, of similar size and weight, and each with a zoomorphic figure sculpted on a tip, one sculpture most resembling the head of an 'Eagle', the other, 'Dog-like'. Given these portable art objects, exotic faunal remains, human bones, possible dog sacrifice, 4 ivory sled runners and other evidence, we infer the Hiscock Clovis zone was a mastodon kill ceremonial site, which also had a shaman sledge burial.

Based on the taxon interpretation of the proposed sculptures and other objects of uncommon significance, a tentative reconstruction is proposed for aspects of the cosmological, shamanic, ecological and spiritual worldviews of Clovis peoples at the Hiscock site. The discovery of Hiscock sculptures and reconstructed worldview the sculptures evoke might apply to other Great Lakes/Northeast Clovis peoples or other Clovis peoples in northern North America. Further research at Hiscock and other North American Clovis sites is needed.

A review of neuroscience neuroimaging research on animacy indicates the existence of an Extended . more A review of neuroscience neuroimaging research on animacy indicates the existence of an Extended Animacy Network (ExtAN) distinct from cognitive theory of mind, agency, action representation and social cognition networks. Prior reviews have focused on posterior areas for biomotion. A pattern-analysis of 157 neuroimaging articles indicates this ExtAN has twenty-five nodes, fifteen right hemisphere and ten left, extending from posterior to anterior cortex and across limbic areas. Neural coordinates and functions are provided for each node. In general, the ExtAN activates during perceiving and expressing the salience, value, quality and degree or intensity of life, aliveness and life-energy.

ExtAN functions include: animacy inference and imagining, especially imperatives visual communicative gesture reading, especially live biomotion linguistic animacy attending to motion target intention changing, e.g., predator/prey human biomotion, liveliness, more than non-human perception of biological forms interpersonal dyadic biomotion semantic distinction between living versus non-living, life versus death personal life continuity into the future processing own immediate relationship to life aliveness life-force and existential mortality threat and death anxiety.

The extended animacy network is the neural substrate for the ontological region of life-experience, life-force and the life-concept. Identification and clarification of the ExtAN is essential for developing any future comprehensive philosophical ontology, theology of life, and clarification of its ontological difference from spirituality and religion social and moral and psychological regions. Findings have implications for characterizing the concepts of animacy and life in neuroscience, biology, psychology, religious studies and anthropology of religion, and evolution of culture.

Keywords: Animacy • neuroscience • biomotion • concept of life • ontology • philosophy of life • animism • spirit • spirituality • life-force • élan vital • biology • cognitive science of religion • evolution of culture

This revision includes new mtDNA dating for San in Rito et al (2019) and its inference that Khois. more This revision includes new mtDNA dating for San in Rito et al (2019) and its inference that Khoisan language family originated in southern Africa with later migration into East Africa. I revised the dates, though I have some doubts about the robustness of the overall origin inference. Also the low date for L3 ooA seems contradicted by arrival of sapiens sapiens in Australia 65,000 years ago. Whole genome dates are earlier and more compatible with the archaeology.
Since I have a current project on East Asian/NE Siberian and southern Siberian mtDNA migration pathways leading to Clovis in northeastern US and Canadian Maritimes I added more data on some tribal populations in the Americas.

This is a revision of Supplementary File Table : mtDNA Database for Archaeogenetic-Linguistics-Archaeology-Mythostratigraphy for Harrod (2014) .
200,000 year Chronological List of mtDNA Haplogroups, TMRCAs, Populations with Exemplary Hg Frequency Samples, Languages, Geographic Regions and Proposed Hg and Language Family, Archaeological Site and Mythostratigraphy Correlations.
This is a work constantly being revised as new findings are reported and revisions will be posted periodically. If you use this database for your research please cite iand give James Harrod credit/acknowledgement.

The Tempering Goddess: A phenomenological and structural analysis of the Britomartis-Diktynna-Aph. more The Tempering Goddess: A phenomenological and structural analysis of the Britomartis-Diktynna-Aphaia Mythologem (1975)
Ph.D. thesis Syracuse University, Department of Religion.

This dissertation analyzes and interprets the mythologem of the ancient Kretan Nature Goddess, Britomartis-Diktynna-Aphaia, as found in the myth variants of' Kallimachos and others.
Interpretation of this mythologem has been cursory. L. R. Farnell and subsequent scholars have interpreted the goddess as a variant of Artemis and Artemis as a form of a matriarchal, chthonic, orgiastic Great Mother Goddess. They believed the Diktynna plant ritual promoted fertility and expressed the wildness and abundance of nature or the seasonal cycles of vegetation. At the same time, they made no effort to interpret central images of the myth (e.g., oaks, nets), and they admitted their inability to comprehend the specific elements of the ritual (e.g., pine, mastich).
I have used a method both phenomenological and structuralist. For the most part, I have applied a procedure Claude Lévi-Strauss used in his “The story of Asdiwal,” namely, to analyze a myth into its levels, in relation to its transformations, and in its ethnographic context. In this way, I have arrived at the following thesis. It is fourfold.
(1) That the image of nets, which finds its primary significance in a technological schema which delineates the making of nets from rushes, is central for interpreting the myth of Britomartis -- so that the Lady of Nets has a twofold tempering essence, i.e., elemental energy and fruitful abundance, as well as limit and measure
(2) That the Diktynna ritual plants find their primary significance in terms of a technology both trepho¬logical and medicinal--so that pine and mastich signify “the idea of resins,” i.e., independence and cyclical growth by means of self-healing inner heat, a process which indirectly heals others--and so that Nature is characterized by interlinkages, by timed quantum leaps of energy, by measured flow, and by kairos
(3) That the Britomartis-Diktynna-Aphaia mythologem as a whole is composed of some ten metaphorically interwoven levels (the primary metaphor being contest marriage) and is triply constituted by (a) a limited number of narrative sequences, (b) an analogical law, and (c) a structural tri¬angle (including the “idea of resin”), which constitution overcomes and reconciles the contradictions between “taking,” “keeping,” and “giving”
And (4) that the myth and ritual—indeed, the mythologem as a whole—have as their central theme that Britomartis-Diktynna-Aphaia, the Goddess of Nature, is tem¬pering—so that Nature is tempering and this temperance is the harmony of elemental energy (including gift exchange), invincible in its fruitfulness, and self-regulating limit and measure, a harmony grounded in a process of cyclical transformation and kairos.
This thesis could be reduced to a single sentence: that Britomartis-Diktynna-Aphaia, or the Lady of Nets, is the Goddess of Nature’s tempering art. (Here the word “art” suggests both the tempering “way” in which she acts and the “artistic” manner of that action.) The formula indicates that Nature, temperance, and technê (art) are inextricably intertwined in the myth of the Goddess and that a technological code, as well as metaphor of marriage contest, is key to the myth and ritual of the Lady of Nets.

This thesis represents the author's specializations in comparative mythology, theology, Ancient Greek religion, anthropology of religion, philosophy and creative writing.

It was stated at the time by various scholars that phenomenology, Jungian psychotherapeutic theory of archetypes, and structuralist analysis were incompatible. One could not do a thesis combining such diverse approaches to mythology and religion. This thesis demonstrates otherwise.

See Also

General Works

A number of important studies treat the general investigation of supreme beings on a large scale. In addition to their theoretical and historical value, these works also provide ample bibliographies on the subject. Mircea Eliade's Patterns in Comparative Religion (New York, 1958) deals at length with the question of supreme beings in chapter 2, "The Sky and Sky Gods." There follow twelve pages of bibliography containing some three hundred entries grouped by geographic and culture area. For a brief synthesis of Raffaele Pettazzoni's view on the issue, see his "The Supreme Being: Phenomenological Structure and Historical Development," in The History of Religions: Essays in Methodology, edited by Joseph M. Kitagawa and Mircea Eliade (Chicago, 1959), pp. 59 – 66. Other important works by Pettazzoni include Dio: Formazione e sviluppo del monoteismo nella storia delle religioni (Rome, 1922) "Allwissende h ö chste Wesen bei primitivsten V ö lkern," Archiv f ü r Religionswissenschaft 29 (1930): 108 – 129, 209 – 243 and L'onni-scienza di Dio (Turin, 1955). A wealth of material is contained in the eleven thousand pages of Wilhelm Schmidt's Der Ursprung der Gottesidee, 12 vols. (M ü nster, 1912 – 1955). Other general works central to the discussion of supreme beings include Nathan S ö derblom's Das Werden des Gottesglaubens: Untersuchungen ü ber die Anf ä nge der Religion, 2d ed. (Leipzig, 1926) Gerardus van der Leeuw's "Die Struktur der Vorstellung des sogenannten H ö chsten Wesens," Archiv f ü r Religionswissenschaft 29 (1931): 79 – 107 Carl Clemen's "Der sogenannte Monotheismus der Primitiven," Archiv f ü r Religionswissenschaft 27 (1927): 290 – 373 and Paul Radin's Monotheism among Primitive Peoples (London, 1924).

Specific Studies

Most of the recent works on the subject make no attempt to encompass the wide parameters of the nature and meaning of supreme beings. Any list of these studies specializing in the supreme being of one culture area could become inordinately long. The following works, not included in the bibliographies of the general treatises cited above, serve as illustrations of the kind of works that bring clarity to the state of the question in their particular field.


David N. Keightley, "The Religious Commitment: Shang Theology and the Genesis of Chinese Political Culture," History of Religions 17 (1978): 211 – 225. Joseph Shih, "The Notion of God in the Ancient Chinese Religion," Numen 16 (1969): 99 – 138. Homer H. Dubs, "The Archaic Royal Jou Religion," T'oung pao 46 (1958): 217 – 259.


Hans Sch ä rer, Ngaju Religion: The Conception of God among a South Borneo People, translated by Rodney Needham (The Hague, 1963). Anicetus B. Sinaga, Toba-Batak High God: Transcendence and Immanence (St. Augustin, West Germany, 1981).


E. E. Evans-Pritchard, Nuer Religion (Oxford, 1956). Godfrey Lienhardt, Divinity and Experience: The Religion of the Dinka (Oxford, 1961). John S. Mbiti, African Religions and Philosophy (New York, 1969). Charles H. Long, "The West African High God: History and Religious Experience." History of Religions 3 (1964): 328 – 349.

South America

Mircea Eliade, "South American High Gods, Part I," History of Religions 8 (1968 – 1969): 338 – 354. Mircea Eliade, "South American High Gods, Part II," History of Religions 10 (1970 – 1971): 234 – 266. Arthur Andrew Demarest, Viracocha: The Nature and Antiquity of the Andean High God (Cambridge, Mass., 1981). Ana Maria Mariscotti, "Die Stellung des Gewittergottes in den Regionalen Pantheen der Zentralanden," Baessler-Archiv (Berlin), n. s. 18 (1970): 427 – 436.


Miguel Le ó n Portilla, La filosof í a nahuatl estudiada en sus fuentes, 2d ed. (Mexico City, 1959). Bodo Spranz, G ö ttergestalten in den mexikanischen Bilderhandschriften der Codex Borgia-Gruppe (Wiesbaden, 1964). Mercedes Olivera de Vazquez, "Los 'due ñ os del agua' en Tlaxcalcingo," Boletin del Instituto Nacional de Antropolog í a e Historia (Mexico City) 35 (1969). Ferdinand Anders, Das Pantheon der Maya (Graz, 1963).

North America

Josef Haekel, "Kosmischer Baum and Pfahl in Mythus und Kult der St ä mme Nordwestamerikas," Wiener v ö lkerkundliche Mitteilungen 6 (1958): 3 – 81. Å ke Hultkrantz, "The Structure of Theistic Beliefs among North American Plains Indians," Temenos 7 (1971): 66 – 74. Å ke Hultkrantz, Religions of the American Indians, translated by Monica Setterwall (Los Angeles, 1979).


E. A. Worms, "Djamar, the Creator," Anthropos 45 (1950): 641 – 658. T. G. H. Strehlow, "Personal Monototemism in a Polytotemic Community." In Festschrift f ü r A. E. Jensen, edited by Eike Haberland et al. (Munich, 1964), pp. 723 – 754. Mircea Eliade, Australian Religions (Ithaca, N.Y., 1973).

New Sources

Egwu, Raphael. Igbo Idea of the Supreme Being and the Triune God. W ü rzburg, 1998.

Global God: Multicultural Evangelical Views of God. Edited by Aida Besancon Spencer and William David Spencer. Grand Rapids, Mich., 1998.

Gupta, V. P. Cult of Mother Goddess: A Global Perspective. Delhi, 1999.

Hodgson, Janet. God of the Xhosa: A Study of the Origins and Development of the Traditional Concepts of the Supreme Being. Cape Town and New York, 1982.

Motz, Lotte. Faces of the Goddess. New York, 1997.

Pruett, Gorden E. As a Father Loves His Children: The Image of the Supreme Being as Loving Father in Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Bethesda, Md., 1994.

Ryan, Patrick. "'Arise, O God:' The Problem of 'gods' in West Africa." Journal of Religion in Africa 11/3 (1980): 161 – 171.

Schwartz, O. Douglas. "Hardship and Evil in Plains Indian Theology." American Journal of Theology & Philosophy 6/2 – 3 (1985): 102 – 114.

Spirituality and the Brain. Is God a Figment of the Imagination? Films for the Humanities & Sciences. Princeton, 2002.

Tovagonze, Venance. "God-Concept: 'Supreme Being' in African Tribal Religions." Journal of Dharma 17 (1992): 122 – 140.

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